What is Induction (Induction), What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
It is possible to answer the question of what is induction as follows: The way of thinking followed in order to reach general propositions based on individual facts is called induction or induction. In other words, it is the path of reason from the particular to the general, from the particular to the universal. Induction is a method of reasoning that deduces the universal from the singular and the particular, and the general from the particular.
The inductive method of reasoning gained its scientific importance in the 17th and 18th centuries and was greatly improved by the contributions of Francis Bacon, Galileo, Newton and John Stuart Mill.
Francis Bacon, by determining the philosophical content of the scientific research method, defined induction as follows: “Induction; It is a method of testing, observing, analyzing events, and then making generalizations and drawing conclusions from separate events in order to know.”
Experimental sciences use the method of induction, which is a method that leads from events to laws. For example, if we see many times that a piece of ice melts on fire, we reason the induction “fire melts ice”. Science legislates this by making a definition like this: It puts the principle of causality on the first premise and says “same causes give the same results under the same conditions”.
He places the results of our experiments on the second premise and says “fire melts ice”. Then he generalizes this result and turns it into a scientific law and says “heat always turns ice into water”. It is the principle of causality that reveals this law scientifically, and not just our observations and experiments.
Induction is being able to reveal the whole by starting from the parts.
WHAT IS FORMAL INDUCTION?
Induction is the mind’s way from the particular to the universal. Making a judgment about the whole based on the parts of a whole is called induction. Induction may be incomplete or complete. Full induction is called making a judgment about the whole by considering all the parts that make up a whole one by one. This is also called formal induction.
An example of formal induction:
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday are all 24 hours.
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday are all days of the week.
So the days of the week are 24 hours.
The week is a whole made up of parts. The days, which are the parts of the week, are counted one by one with their common features and a judgment is given about the days. Since the days are all parts of the week, this provision also applies to the week. What Aristotle means by induction is induction that emerges through reasoning in this way. That is, it is formal induction.
WHAT IS MISSING INDUCTION?
Incomplete induction, or magnifying induction or scientific induction, on the other hand, means judging the whole and reaching laws by looking at some, not all, of the parts that make up a whole. For example, Archimedes observed several objects submerged in water, and reached his famous conclusion as a result of these observations:
“An object immersed in a liquid is under the influence of a pushing force from the bottom up. This force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the object.”
As can be seen here, Archimedes reached a general conclusion as a result of several observations that reached the same conclusion and gave his judgment in this direction. Here is the induction used by the experimental sciences, this is incomplete induction. The conclusion reached in incomplete inductions is a perhaps one. For example, looking at the fact that many cats have tails, we inductively conclude that all cats have tails, but cats living in the Isles of Man are tailless. That’s why it would be more accurate to say “all cats have tails”.
An example of incomplete induction:
Man is alive and nurtured.
The animal is alive and fed.
The plant is alive and nourished.
So all living things are fed.
As can be seen in this example, “all living things” have been reached in general and a universal judgment has been made based on human, animal and plant characteristics. In other words, humans, animals and plants have been accepted as representing the whole scale of living things. This system of reaching universal judgment is called incomplete induction.
There is a difference between these two forms of induction: In the first induction, that is, in full induction, the result is necessary. In the second induction, that is, incomplete induction, the result is contingent, that is, probable. The induction that classical logic deals with and deals with is induction of the first kind. We will now give another example of induction of the first kind, that is, complete induction, and this example will be directly Aristotle’s own example. Aristotle provides an example:
Humans, horses and mules are long-lived creatures.
All non-bilious animals; man, horse and mule.
Therefore, all non-bilious animals are long-lived.
As seen in this example, in order for the result to be precise, and therefore for induction to be possible, the minor term “non-biliary animals” must be equivalent to the middle term “man, horse and mule”. Because in the end, instead of “man, horse and mule”, which is the subject of the first proposition, “all animals without bile” are shown. This means that in induction, the count must be complete.