What is Information?

What is Information?

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

Knowledge is the name given to the product arising from the relationship established between the knowing entity, that is, the subject (subject), and the known entity, that is, the object (object). In other words, the subject (subject)’s interpretation of the object (object), making a judgment about it or making an explanation is called knowledge.


There are many different views on what knowledge is. Let’s start with the most common and easy to understand. Human perceives the environment and the universe in which he lives through his sense organs. In this perception, there are two basic elements called “subject” (subject) and “object” (object).

Knowledge is often defined as the product that emerges as a result of the relationship established between the knowing subject and the known object. The subject in this definition is a person who exhibits an active attitude; The object is the passive entity to which the subject is directed. In addition, information flow (link) also refers to activities such as perception, thinking, understanding and explanation.

A person who exhibits an active attitude consciously and purposefully turns to an object and makes it his subject. An information flow relationship is established between the subject and this object to which the subject is directed, and as a result of this relationship, knowledge is formed.

Related topic: What is an Information Flow?

Knowledge is what is the product of the relationship established between the subject and the object as a result of the subject’s purposeful orientation.

How is knowledge formed?

Knowledge is the reproduction of the legal relations of the objective world, created by man with his social labor, in his thinking. The relationship established between man and his environment, ‘knowledge’, has been evaluated from various perspectives since the first thoughts.

Some have argued that this relationship can never be established (knowledge cannot be acquired), some can be partially established, some can only be established at the divine level, and some have argued that it is being established at any time as a relative (relative N.).

Research on the source, essence and limit of knowledge has given birth to various teachings. Rationalism, empiricism, empiricism, intuitionism, criticism, skepticism, agnosticism, positivism, pragmatism, stubbornness, belief, probabilism, momentaryism, voluntarism, innateism, pedanticism, etc. They put forward various arguments about whether knowledge is possible for human beings or not.

What is Knowledge in a Philosophical Sense?

In ancient Greek thought, scholars and skeptics believed that knowledge was impossible.

Socrates also argued that physical knowledge is not certain and that certain knowledge can only be realized in the ethical field. Kant’s idealism, Comte’s positivism, Spencer’s evolutionism, Heidegger’s and Sartre’s existentialism, and Camus’s absurdism have continued and brought them to our time.

Against these, the doctrines that claim knowledge is possible fall into two major camps as to how knowledge can be obtained. Those gathered under the general name of rationalists argue that knowledge has existed in the human mind since birth, and those gathered under the general name of sensory people argue that knowledge can only be obtained with our senses.

There are also doctrines such as the objective reflectivism of Plato and Hegel, which assert that knowledge is independent of man and determines itself by itself.


The British philosopher Spencer’s argument that there are three kinds of knowledge led to a classification of knowledge. According to Spencer, one of these three types of knowledge is ‘public knowledge’, which is scattered and daily knowledge, the second is ‘scientific knowledge’, which is the information obtained by combining scattered knowledge in their specific branches of science and connecting them to laws, and the third is ‘philosophical knowledge’, which is scientific knowledge. It is knowledge that has combined into a universal law.

Knowledge is not ready in nature, there are objects and events in nature, but there is no knowledge, it is man himself who creates and produces knowledge, with the contribution of thought and his work on nature.

Aside from metaphysical, idealistic and theological assumptions, sensationism, which came very close to being scientific, defined knowledge as the product of ‘individual experimentation’. However, it could not be explained where this individual experiment found the concepts and categories that he had to use in ordering his perceptions. Because these concepts and categories were not the products of individual experimentation, but the products of ‘social experimentation’, which were produced and prepared for thousands of years (reason and knowledge N.).

No knowledge can be explained without specifying the social character of human practice. The knowledge acquired by man through social work is the reflection of nature in consciousness. However, this is not a simple physical projection like a mirror reflecting nature, but a conscious projection that requires some complex functions.

Knowledge starts from the object itself. It is perceived by the senses. It undergoes various abstractions and synthesis in human consciousness. It is conceptualized, categorized, enacted (and hypothesized N.). Then he returns to nature, to the object, and checks himself with practice, justifies (and theorizes N.).

The half, which is conceptualized, categorized and enacted in human consciousness, does not become knowledge unless it is confirmed by practice by returning to nature. Knowledge comes from the concrete, passes through the abstract and occurs again in the concrete.

Sensible data is limited, e.g. light at three per second.