What is Islamic Philosophy?June 28, 2021
Within a few hundred years after the birth of Islam, Muslims dominated many of the great centers of thought of the ancient world. If the political authority they established had been used to destroy the old centers of thought, the Muslims would undoubtedly have been significantly successful in this. Yet they preferred to take advantage of the intellectual wealth of ancient civilizations, and the military conquests of Islam were followed by an enthusiastic intellectual effort to absorb the wisdom of the ancient world. As a result, Islamic philosophy emerged.
Islamic thinkers especially attempted to bring the main philosophy classics of the Ancient Greek civilization into Arabic. This process, which generally developed under the auspices of great politicians, resulted in philosophical concepts and methods gaining a unique and deep-rooted place in Islamic thought.
Thanks to this translation movement, Islamic thinkers, who were introduced to the impressive views of great Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, soon found themselves in a difficult debate about the nature of the relations between religion and philosophy. This discussion also referred to the deep theological problems of how to determine the relations between reason and faith, the truths of revelation and the truths of philosophy, and therefore it was also given importance by Islamic theologians.
Islamic thinkers faced more or less the same intellectual problems as their Christian counterparts in the West. Islamic thinkers, just like Christian thinkers, felt the need to justify the existence, unity and creative activity of God with rational explanations.
In addition, God’s relationship with the universe (creation problem), the situation of human will against divine will (freedom problem), how the evils on earth can be reconciled with God’s absolute goodness (evil problem), what will be the fate of the human soul after death (life after death). They discussed with great intellectual competence how to be resurrected, how much one can know about the truths of the universe (the problem of the limits and source of knowledge), and tried to solve these problems in a way that would convince every human mind that works correctly.
Thanks to these fruitful intellectual efforts, the Islamic world has trained many great thinkers such as Kindi, Razi, Ibn Sina, Farabi, Ibn Haldun, Ghazali, Ibn Rushd who have influenced Western thought in a short time (between the 9th and 12th centuries) in terms of human history. has produced many important works in almost every field of science, some of which are considered to be the first and pioneering examples of their kind.
In this way, Arabic became the common language of the period, which people who spoke different languages applied to do science in a short time, and gained so much importance that an important thirteenth century thinker like Roger Bacon said that those who do not know Arabic cannot deal with science and philosophy effectively. For all these reasons, it is necessary to accept the two-three-century period in question as one of the rare golden ages of human history, in intellectual terms.
The first original and mature products in the Islamic world VIII-XIII. It is known that scientific and intellectual discussions were held on the basis of the belief, moral and legal principles of the religion of Islam, before the beginning of the “philosophy” studies in the special meaning given between the centuries. All kinds of religious, moral, legal, social and political problems concerning individual and social life are directly addressed to Hz. The belief and consensus in the age of happiness, when it was resolved by the Prophet, was replaced by the caliphate, the great sin, the freedom of fate and will, etc., with his death. It left many problems.
In addition, with the conquests that took place with great speed and success, the second caliph Hz. The spread of Islam to a wide geography including Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Egypt during the Omar period enabled Muslims to meet with very different belief and cultural circles, and this brought some important developments.
Translations on Ancient Greek philosophy were made in schools opened in various centers in the East (such as Antakya, Harran, Iran and Alexandria) in the pre-Islamic period. Especially the translations from Greek (Greek) to Syriac introduced the geography between East and West to Ancient Greek philosophy. The rapid spread of Islamic civilization enabled many different cultures to interact with each other; It has created important developments in science, art and philosophy. Especially Baghdad has become the center of these developments. Islamic philosophy; 7-12 AD. It emerged and spread in a wide geography, where the religion of Islam was accepted between the 19th century and in which there were different nations.
Also please see:
What is the word, how was the word born?
Conditions of Emergence of Islamic Philosophy
What are the main features of Islamic philosophy?
The problem of proving the existence of the creator in Islamic philosophy
Willpower in Islamic philosophy