What is Islamic Philosophy?December 23, 2019
Over the course of several hundred years after the birth of Islam, Muslims dominated many of the great centers of thought in the ancient world.
If their political authority was used to destroy the old focal points of thought, Muslims would undoubtedly have been significantly successful. However, they preferred to exploit the intellectual wealth of ancient civilizations, and the Islamic conquest of Islam was followed by an enthusiastic intellectual effort to absorb the wisdom accumulations of the old world.
Islamic thinkers, in particular, attempted to introduce the major philosophy classics of the ancient Greek civilization into Arabic. This process, which generally developed under the auspices of the great politicians, resulted in the adoption of an original and rooted place in Islamic thought by the concepts and methods of philosophy. Thanks to this translation movement, Plato and Aristotle Islamic philosophers who met with impressive views of great Greek philosophers, soon found themselves in tough debates on the nature of relations between religion and philosophy. This discussion also referred to the profound theological problems of how the relations between reason and faith, revelation truths, and philosophical truths were to be determined, and was therefore considered important by Islamic theologians.
Islamic thinkers were facing roughly the same intellectual problems with their Christian counterparts in the West. Islamic thinkers, like the Christian thinkers, felt the necessity to justify God’s existence, oneness, and creative activity with rational explanations. In addition, God’s relationship with the universe (the problem of creation), the state of the human will against the Divine will (freedom problem), how the evils on earth can be reconciled with the absolute good of God (evil problem), what is the aftermath of the human soul (death after death) Is there any problem and question), if resurrection, how to resurrect,
Through these productive intellectual efforts, the Islamic world has raised many great ideas such as Kindi , Razi , Ibn Sina , Farabi , Ibn Khaldun , Ghazali , Ibn Rushd , who profoundly influenced Western thought in a short period of time (between the 9th and 12th centuries) . has produced many important works in almost every field of science, some of which are among the first and pioneering examples of his kind. In this way, Arabic became the common language that people of different languages used to make science, Roger Bacon. such an important thirteenth-century thinker, such as science and philosophy can not effectively deal with non-Arabic. For all these reasons, it is necessary to consider this two-to-three-century period as one of the rare golden ages of human history.
The first original and mature products in the Islamic world VIII-XIII. It is known that scientific and intellectual debates were made on the basis of belief, morality and law principles of Islamic religion before the beginning of the studies of “philosophy özel in the special meaning giving between centuries. Both religious and moral, legal, social and political problems concerning individual and social life are directly related to Hz. The unity of belief and consensus in the age of happiness, which was solved by the Prophet, together with its success, was replaced by the great sin, freedom of fate and will, and so on. left many problems. In addition, with great speed and success in the conquests of the second caliph Hz. The spread of Islam in a wide geography including Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Egypt,
In the pre-Islamic period, schools were opened in various centers in the East (such as Antakya, Harran, Iran and Alexandria). Especially Greek (Syriac) translations from Greek (Greek) introduced the geography between East and West with Ancient Greek philosophy. The rapid expansion of Islamic civilization has enabled many cultures to interact with one another; science, art and philosophy. Baghdad has become the center of these developments. Islamic philosophy; MS 7-12. century, the emergence of Islam in a wide geography, which is accepted by different nations and spread.
General Characteristics of Islamic Philosophy are:
– Influenced by ancient Greek philosophy.
– Issues such as reason, faith and faith were discussed.
– Problems before Islamic philosophy are discussed.
– Translation activities were conducted.
– Contributed to the development of philosophy.
– They influenced Western philosophy.
Please also see:
– What is Kalam, how was Kalam born?
– the existence of proof problem
of the creative in Islamic philosophy – freedom of the will of the problems
in – social life facing problems in Islamic philosophy
– information problems
in – the belief that mental relations in Islamic philosophy
– the translation movement and philosophy of transferring to the Islamic world
– the schools emerged in Islamic philosophy
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Textbook