What Is Johann Gregor Mendelian Genetics?June 27, 2021
Mendelian genetics, Mendelism or Mendelian laws are the classical laws of genetics that Gregor Mendel, an Austrian priest, found in relation to the science of genetics.
Mendel found interesting results for inheritance by crossing (matching) peas with each other in the monastery garden. He said that although the existence of chromosomes and genes was not known at the time of his work, the characteristics were transferred from generation to generation with units he called “factors”. He is considered the founder of genetics in his Essays on Plant Hybrids, published in 1865, the results of his years of work with garden peas.
The subject of Mendel’s most important experiments was the pea. Some of the common pea pods are flat-round, some are wrinkled, some are yellow, others are green, some pea plants are long and some are short. Subjecting these plants to regular pollination, Mendel showed how the above traits are transmitted from offspring to offspring. It can be thought that the result of the combination of two features may be a characteristic mean. Indeed, these results can be obtained from the combination of some pure characters; but according to Mendel’s experiments, hybrids emerged from the cross of two pure characters, such as length and shortness. As the tall character predominates the shortness character, the hybrid individuals were ultimately tall. As a result of the cross of these two long hybrids, 25% pure long, 25% pure short, 50% hybrid long. When two identical pure traits were crossed, only this pure trait appeared. This was the basis of Mendel’s laws.
Mendel found that certain traits did not change in his crosses with garden peas. While some of the peas were short and bushy (dwarf), some were tall and climbing. Again, some would produce green seeds, while others would produce yellow seeds. Some had colored flowers, while others had white flowers.
Mendel discovered that the seven properties of garden peas did not change. He also found that traits in pea varieties were preserved from generation to generation by self-pollination.
In cross-pollination, it was easily produced by transferring pollen from the male organs of the flower to the female part of the other plant.
The subject chosen by Mendel was ideal as seven different traits (length, shortness, yellow seed, green seed etc.) were seen and crossing pollination was easily performed. His first job was to discover the seven traits that he followed and which are constantly passed on from parents to children, whether present or not. Mendel collected seeds from each of the different plant varieties and planted them as seedlings in his garden. He took into account that the seven characteristics revealed by the experiments were transferred from the parents (parents) to the offspring in the formation of offspring. Since pea flowers have a structure that can only fertilize themselves, they are suitable to continue their pure lineage. In his first experiments, Mendel began to investigate whether peas were pure offspring. For this, he pollinated the same plant several times in succession and obtained many offspring. He separated the individuals he obtained from each progeny according to whether they resembled each other and their parents. Thus, he obtained seven pure offspring with different characteristics. He named each of these traits pure character. The reason for using peas in Mendel’s experiment is that the long and wide petals of pea flowers completely close the male and female parts of the flower to the outside world.