What is Kalam? Who is the Kalamcı?December 22, 2019
Theology is a movement of science and thought that undertakes the function of protecting the integrity of belief and thought of Islamic society and demonstrating the superiority of Islam over other belief systems and cultures. Kalam is a thought movement that undertakes the function of systematically and rationally grounding the belief principles of the Islamic religion, neutralizing the bidat that arises under the influence of foreign cultures and poses a danger to the negativity in the social life and responds to the criticisms directed against Islam.
Although the history of this movement can be traced back to the time of the Companions in terms of problems of interest, its subject, purpose and method became an independent discipline, and it was during the Abbasid caliph Hârûnürörtîd (786-809) after a period of one hundred and fifty years. The emergence of the word as a movement of science and thought is influenced by the internal causes of Islam and the religious, political and social problems faced by Islamic society, as well as the external reasons related to the encounter with other religions and cultures of thought.
In parallel with the expansion of the Islamic geography and the increase in the Muslim population, the need for deepening of religious thought is becoming increasingly intense. As it appears to be contradictory, especially in terms of the first conspicuous meanings, efforts towards the correct understanding of religious texts called “muteshabih” have led to the emergence of different views and understandings on various subjects. On the other hand, in many verses of the Qur’an, people are called upon to observe, understand, make sense of, and interpret what is happening, both on their own bodies and souls and on other beings and events.
Stressing that one can reach the right information by using his / her senses, emotions and reasoning, Islam religion insists that the belief and righteous behavior cannot be reached with the information imitated without any examination, evaluation and grounding just because it is learned from its ancestors. Such divine warnings and orders have led the Islamic community to turn to the foundation of religious thought and to produce new knowledge. In addition, in the Qur’an, the existence of God, unity and supreme attributes, such as prophecy, destiny, faith-denial, good-bad, good deed-sin, many issues can be placed on a mental basis and should be placed on the objections directed to them It was pointed out that there are mental and logical answers to be given.
The prophet and therefore the Muslims were ordered to fight the superstitious beliefs and behaviors in the most appropriate manner and manner with other religious members who were explained and criticized. Hz. In a short period of time following the death of the Prophet, many people living in the conquered regions became Muslims. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct.
The first serious debate and disagreement in Islamic society is political. Upon the death of the Prophet, who came to his place as the caliph. Although Abu Bakr seems to have been solved with the election of the caliph, this issue has gradually deepened and moved to different dimensions. Especially Ali b. Some later supporters of Abu Talib claimed that this political question also had religious foundations. As a result of these discussions, Osman b. Affan and then Ali b. The death of a large number of Companions as a result of internal conflicts during the wars of Abu Talib during the caliphate of Cemal and Sifff brought many discussions and problems to the agenda of Islamic society.
How does a Muslim’s murder of another Muslim brother affect his religious status while Islam prohibits killing people? Is he still a believer and a Muslim, or should he be regarded as out of religion? Is there an integrity and integrity between faith and deed / act, or are they interrelated but separate things? Did he act as a necessity of this de facto fate or by his own free will? How should the relationship between divine intervention and influence and human will be understood in human acts and behaviors? The disagreements caused by the discussions on these and other related questions and problems have led to the emergence of various schools / schools. All of these are just a few of the religious reasons that led Muslims to deepen in the field of religious thought.
The jurisprudence used by Islamic jurists (faqih, fukahâ) in reasoning and inference from the beginning to the time of Gazzali , and the theologians who used jedel (ie dialectics) as the method in theological debates, the logic of Gazzâlî with the slogan of “unreasonable bil After Aristotle , they began to benefit greatly from the logic of Aristotle . Because the method they use is different, the theologians before Gâzzâlî are referred to as mutakaddimîn (previous ones) and the theologians after Gazzâlî are known as şahahhirîn / later ones .
Theologians, whose real purpose was to provide Islamic foundations with rational foundations and explanations, paid special attention to the question of knowledge. Because the first thing they had to do was to show that the source of religion, revelation, is a reliable source of knowledge. For this reason, theologians began to examine this issue as the first chapter of theological books, long before the philosophers dealt with the problem of knowledge in a separate discipline under the name of epistemology in the New Age .
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook