What Is Lamarckism, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Lamarckism is the theory that asserts that the transformations of the vital process arising from the necessity of adapting to the environment evolve by inheritance from generation to generation. Lamarkcılık, in the Dictionary of Psychology Terms published by the Turkish Language Association. The term Lamarckianism is defined as such: “An evolutionary theory that holds that changes resulting from the use or non-use of one of its organs as long as a living being is passed on from one generation to the next.”
The French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1733-1829) was the one who opposed the theory of the constancy of species and presented a primitive but consistent form of evolutionary thought. The characteristic features of the theory are:
He argued that living beings are descended from inanimate objects,
He determined the necessity of living things to adapt to the environment (he argued that changes arise from the necessity of adapting to the environment (needs) N.)
He argued that the changes required by adapting to the environment are inherited from generation to generation.
Lamarckism Theory is called ‘transformationism’. Lamarck thought that transformational evolution was due only to the necessity of adapting to the environment. For example, he claimed that the giraffe was a grass-fed animal with a normal neck and legs, and because its environment became a desert, it had to move to another environment and obtain its food from high branches, and that its neck and legs had to be elongated in order to reach those high branches. (Every niche (different feeding zone) on earth has been filled by living things. Living things suitable for each niche have evolved. Living things have evolved in accordance with niches. Giraffes are also animals that have evolved to feed on food in the high branches of trees and fill that niche (the feeding area of the higher parts of trees) N.)
The English scholar Darwin added to this the phenomenon of natural selection, which better explains many evolutionary events (Natural selection does not contradict Lamarck’s argument that changes result from the necessity of adapting to the environment, but complements it. In natural selection, those who are best adapted to the environment continue to evolve, and those who cannot adapt are selected N)
Although he put forward a very progressive theory, Lamarck also had reactionary ideas. Lamarck believed that a divine purpose determined the development of beings. Because according to him, the material could not have a power of development from itself. However, Charles Darwin, who created the most authoritative theory in the field of evolutionism, made use of it and used Lamarck’s views of both environment and inheritance in his theory.