What is Logic? What is the Subject of Logic?July 2, 2021
It is a concept derived from the concept of “speech”, that is, “speaking”. For Farabi, this takes place in the form of internal and external speech. “Logic” is used both as a name for a science and to indicate a way of thinking. In sentences such as “Where are we responsible for logic?”, “Logic is accepted as the general method of all sciences”, logic is used in the sense of a science. On the other hand, it is used in the sense of thinking logically when saying “What you say fits the mind and logic”, “Be a little logical”, “Let’s think logically”.
Logic as thinking is not dependent on the discipline of logic. People used to think logically and coherently even before “logic” was accepted as a science. But logic became a science with Aristotle.
As a term, logic is a science that is a means of reaching the knowledge of the unknown based on the known, or a discipline that protects the mind from making mistakes if its rules are followed. Logic is the system of rules that separates right thinking from wrong thinking.
Logic is a formal science. So it is formal. It is not about concrete events in the outside world. Concepts that are subject to logic cannot be shown in the outside world as “this” or “that”. It is therefore similar to mathematics and geometry, which are the sciences of thought. The basis of these sciences is already logical thinking and logical reasoning.
WHAT IS LOGIC?
The science of verifying thought by thought. Aristotle sought a scientific method of thinking to check whether the thoughts were correct and tried to determine the rules of correct thinking and named them ‘organon’, which means ‘tool’ in Greek. According to Aristotle, the rules of logic are tools of correct thinking. The logic called ‘formal logic’ is the logic established by Aristotle.
Although the science of logic has undergone various arrangements for centuries, it has always remained formal and in accordance with the definition of Aristotle; because he claims that thought can be justified by thought. However, thought can only be verified by practice, it is the action that checks the theory and reveals whether it is true or not.
Formal logic is built on three principles:
Identity principle: A thing is the same as itself.
Principle of non-contradiction: Something cannot be both true and false.
The principle of the impossibility of the third state: Something is either right or wrong, there is no third possibility.
Dialectical (dialectical) logic is the name given to dialectical materialism in terms of logic and is the knowledge of the general laws of thinking as well as of dialectic, nature and history. Man could only comprehend nature and history with a thought that worked with the working laws of nature and history. Man himself is also a part of nature and history (society). Man has not shaped nature and history with his thoughts, on the contrary, his thought has been shaped by nature and history. (Nature and history (society) shape man and thought, man, and thought shape nature and history (society). “The laws of logic are the laws of the reflection of objective reality in the subjective consciousness of man”.
The main task of dialectical logic is; It is to express movement, change, the continuous development of objects and events with human concepts. Dialectal logic determines the relationship between the logical development of thought and the historical development of the object.
WHAT IS THE SUBJECT OF THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC?
What do you understand by the words “being reasonable” or “acting rationally” used in everyday life? Think about what the subject of the logic lesson might be. It is not attempted to draw a logical conclusion based on the sentences “All people think logically” and “Gülşah is a human being”. Do you think this is a reasonable behavior?
Logic is derived from the Arabic word nutuk, which means speech. Its equivalent in Western languages is logic. It comes from the Greek word logos. logos; reason, thinking, law, principle, word, etc. means. The term logic is used in two senses:
As a correct way of thinking: “Think logically!”, “Is there any logic in your speech?”, “Be a little logical!”, “Think right!” Words like this are used in this sense. In daily life, you also use different words that can mean the same thing.
As a philosophy discipline that deals with the correct way of thinking: It examines the rules of reasoning and documentary thinking. In this sense, it is not concerned with the correctness of the asserted thought, but with how to think correctly. Therefore, logic is at the foundation of all sciences; because if science aims to reach the knowledge of the truth, it is impossible to reach the knowledge of the truth without correct thinking.
Logic can be defined as a discipline that studies the rules of correct thinking.
The “truth” in the above definition is the logic line and differs from the knowledge line. So, there can be two kinds of truth: The truth of knowledge and the truth of logic.