What is Monism (monism, monism) and what does it mean?

What is Monism (monism, monism) and what does it mean?

July 1, 2021 Off By Felso

It is possible to answer the question of what is monism as follows: Monism is a doctrine that accepts only one principle as the basis of reality.


Monism is the general name given to the teachings that reduce the multiplicity in every field to unity. In particular, the teachings that equate spirit and matter by reducing spirit to matter or matter to spirit are monists or monists.

The term monism is used against the concepts of dualism and pluralism. For example, the German philosopher Hegel is a monist because he regards matter as the product of the spirit. On the other hand, the French thinker Descartes is dualist because he argues that spirit and matter cannot be reduced to each other. The German philosopher Herbart is also a polytheist because he argues that the beings in the universe come from many roots that cannot be reduced to each other.

The term monism was coined by the German philosopher Wolff, from the Greek word monos meaning lonely. Monism, expressed by some writers as monism, names the view that all kinds of existence come from a single source, and because this source is assumed to be matter or spirit, it is divided into two as materialist monism and thoughtful monism. Spinoza, all pantheists, all Eastern and Western mystics, monotheists, thinkers and vulgar materialists are monists. The most advanced and scientific form of monism is seen in the understanding of Marxism.

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