What is Monotheism (monotheism)?June 29, 2021
Monotheism is the view that there is only one God. Monotheism is man’s arrival at the idea of an omnipotent monotheistic deity under the influence of historical conditions that led him to search for the first or unchangeable cause in nature and society. In addition, believing that there is only one omnipotent god, who creates and rules the universe, nature and society, and worshiping him is called monotheism.
Monotheism is the belief that God is one and separate from the world. Monotheism is a concept derived from monos meaning one and theos meaning god. Religions and teachings that hold this belief are monotheistic. It is the fantastic reflection of the slave-master relationship peculiar to the slave production order in the divine hierarchy. The masses of working and oppressed people are servants (slaves), and the despot king, the lord of masters, is god.
Slavery ideology spread the belief that the masters got their power from God from ancient Babylon, Egypt, India, Urartu, Iran to the ancient slave states. Employees must obey and submit, or god will punish them both in this world and in death. Thus was born the concept of hell as the divine punishment of the disobedient and heaven as the divine concession of those who submit and suffer. The slave production system required a state organization to keep the working masses oppressed, and a despot-king as the representative of the slave owners at the head of this organization.
Beliefs accepted as monotheistic religions are monotheistic.
The gods of polytheism thus became monotheistic. In order to reach this stage, the stage of worshiping a single god has been passed by accepting the existence of other gods. Judaism, the source of the three major monotheistic religions, is one of the most obvious examples of this universe. The monotheist of Judaism, Yahweh (Hebrew means he is), is an eloah (Spirit, God) among countless elohim (Spirits).
He clearly states this in the first of the ten Commandments that he wrote with his fingers and gave to Moses: “You will not worship other spirits, but only me”. Christianity, which was born from Judaism, also bears the traces of monolatry with its famous trinity (Father-son-holy spirit). In this sense, it can be said that monotheism was realized only in Islam. Lods, one of the historians of religion, says that “monolatry is a special form of polytheism”, Bouche-Leclerck “is nothing but hierarchical polytheism, which has always been called monotheism”.
In the early stages of the slave production system, it was necessary to accept the gods of neighboring nations as well; This necessity is the source of the monolath. The opportunity to cut off the relationship with them and leave his god alone came in time. In particular, the Israelites had a great need for an entirely unique god who could free them from Egyptian slavery and make them a nation, they had to choose an eloah from among the numerous elohim, Yahweh (This word comes from: Moses asks the bush spirit he met on Mount Horeb his name, and he says “I, I”. He replies, “I am the name of God”, so that is the name of God) thus came into being.
Historical Development of Monotheism (Monotheism)
Historically speaking, monotheism, that is, a belief that accepts only one God to the exclusion of all other gods, is a phenomenon that emerged later than polytheism in terms of time, since it always occurs in the context of polytheism.
To the extent that available historical data allow us to draw conclusions, the monotheistic sun worship of the Egyptian king Ikhnaton can be regarded as the first historical expression of strict and explicit monotheism (mid-14th century BC). However, we should point out that this early monotheism did not survive for long, as it disappeared with the death of the king.
In the hymns sung in honor of the sun god Aten, the rejection and abandonment of all other gods and their religious rituals is striking. Aten is the One God, the creator and organizer of the world and of life on earth; indeed, it is the Life that all living things live. All life on earth arises and exists from the life, light, and warmth of the Sun; He creates the child in the womb and is the reason for its growth.
“You are far away (in the heavens) and only your lights are active on earth”. Again you went west to rest, and the world remained in darkness like the darkness of death; You were born and people woke up: you gave them life”.
In addition, Aten is considered the God of all people, not just the Egyptians:
“Their language, appearance, and skin color are different; You have created them all differently”.
“Youre in my heart; (of course) you are the power that gave me wisdom and plans and (makes them happen)”.
Ikhnaton is neither a prophet nor a religious genius. This explains why his monotheism never became popular. However, it is important to see that such monotheism is a clear and deliberate rejection of polytheism. As the Sun god of Aten, be the creator of all things including the sun.