What is Multiculturalism and Multiculturalism?June 28, 2021
The secular European Civilization of the New Age – or simply the “West” – and the Western European nation-states formed within the framework of this civilization, as well as countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, have gone through important social transformation processes such as the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution.
After these processes, the “West”, which established a worldwide economic and political dominance, became the architect of the ways of thinking and value understandings called “modern” and even “postmodern”. Especially after 1945, people from different cultures and national identities, who did not go through the development and transformation processes of the West, tended to immigrate to Western countries with increasing intensity in the hope of a more humane life. These migrations brought along important problems and many new issues such as multiculturalism, multiculturalism, marginalization and xenophobia, which are important in terms of political philosophy, especially in countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia and France, which received heavy immigration in the 20th century, were opened to discussion.
In this topic, we will start by trying to understand what is meant by “multiculturalism” and “multiculturalism”, how these problems fit into the agenda of society and politics, and continue by analyzing “racism”, a concept that is in opposition to both multiculturalism and multiculturalism, by investigating the possibilities of distinguishing these two concepts from each other. We will try to evaluate all these concepts from the point of view of political philosophy.
– What is multiculturalism?
– What is multiculturalism?
– The relation between multiculturalism and multiculturalism
– What is racism?
Multiculturalism, multiculturalism and racism are political problems that emerged in the 20th century, and their evaluation on the basis of philosophy began in the same century. Considering the decisive impact of the developments in the 20th century on today’s living conditions, it is possible to trace the beginning of contemporary philosophy back to the beginning of the 20th century and to still see the 21st century as an extension of contemporary philosophy. Multiculturalism, multiculturalism and racism are therefore problems of contemporary political philosophy and discussions on all these concepts continue today.
The problems of multiculturalism, multiculturalism and racism can be evaluated in terms of 1. Democracy and human rights, 2. More fundamental and general problems of political philosophy.
In fact, we can say that these discussions are based on two main political ideals that have been carried from the last century to this century. One of these axes is democracy and the social order based on the community of equal and free individuals, which is aimed to be realized through democracy, and the other is universal human rights, with which democracy has a close relationship. The Egyptian people’s forcing the 30-year-old president to resign from office in the first month of 2011, the riots in Yemen and the Syrian people’s revolt against their own president in the following months indicate that democracy and human rights are a globalized demand, as well as a humanitarian problem that transcends local cultures. . Therefore, it would be appropriate for us to evaluate multiculturalism, multiculturalism and racism, which are the titles of this unit, primarily in terms of democracy and human rights. The second and last stage of our evaluation will be focused on general political philosophy problems.
First of all, for an evaluation on democracy and human rights, it would be useful to remind once again the characteristics of liberal democracy, which are also included in the unit titled “Democracy and its Problems” in the book “Political Philosophy I”. In the unit in question, we saw the following about liberal democracy:
1. Liberal democracy is an opinion that is based on the individual and advocates the widest use of rights and freedoms.
2. In addition, liberal democracy also defends pluralism, free market economy, civil society, the inviolability of private life or the autonomy of the individual and mutual tolerance and sees it as indispensable (Yazıcı 2008, p. 172).
3. Today, most Western countries are governed by various systems arising from the understanding of liberal democracy, and even the political basis of the European Union is formed by the values represented by this understanding of democracy (ibid.).
4. In societies governed by democracy, elected administrators have basic obligations such as protecting, strengthening and developing the welfare level and all individual rights and freedoms for the whole society. So, in today’s multicultural societies ruled by democracy, multiculturalism accompanies democracy as a sine qua non understanding of politics.
In Latin, conditio sine qua non is a logical term used to mean “no condition without it” and expresses a logical relationship. In today’s multicultural societies, it is an indispensable condition for a democratic state to adopt a multiculturalist understanding of politics.
In addition, democracy is the most virtuous form of government in terms of giving people the opportunity to correct the mistakes made in the administration (Cevizci 2005, p. 446). current black