What is Naturalism in Educational Philosophy?June 29, 2021
Although naturalism is closely related to realism, it argues that there is no reality outside of the physical world, as a philosophy that developed as a separate philosophical movement and is based on ancient times. This movement is also identified with materialist philosophy and opposes metaphysics.
According to naturalism, human beings are a product of nature. For this reason, naturalism gives importance to harmony and relations between human and nature. Nature; It is the source of truth, of human life and experience. Therefore, the laws of nature must be applied to society, economy, politics and education.
Education according to naturalist philosophy; It should raise people as required by human nature and in line with a life in accordance with this nature. Rousseau and Pestalozzi are the main representatives of the educational structure of naturalism. Rousseau influenced many Turkish intellectuals, albeit limited, from the Tanzimat Period to the first years of the Republic, in terms of politics with his book “Social Contract” (1762) and in the context of educational sciences with his book “Emile or Related to Education” (1763).
Naturalism in Terms of Educational Philosophy
Education should be student-centered and democratic.
Students should learn by doing and living, solve the problems they encounter in the natural environment, develop their senses, and organize their lives by interacting with their environment.
Learning should be tailored to the individual’s interests and abilities.
The teacher should be the one who creates opportunities for knowledge in the natural environment, not the one who conveys knowledge and makes me memorize it.
Learning should be realized by enabling students to interact with the environment.
The teacher should not force the student, because people learn when they are ready to learn.
Ready information should not be presented to the student, methods that will enable him to discover the information should be used.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology, Grade 4 “Sociology of Education” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); prof. Dr. Hüseyin Akyüz – A Research on Basic Concepts and Fields of Sociology of Education; Atatürk University, Department of Sociology, Year 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM)