What is Negation of Negation?July 2, 2021
One of the three great universal Laws explained by dialectical and historical materialist teaching. The law of the negation of negation, together with other universal laws called the unity and struggle of opposites and the law of transition from quantity to quality, is a universal law valid in the evolution of nature, consciousness and society. Infinite and unlimited evolution takes place through the operation of these three laws in the entire universe. All three laws were first put forward by the German thinker Hegel, from an idealist perspective and specific to the field of logical thought. The dialectical and historical materialist doctrine removed it from its idealist structure and applied it to material life and society, and universalized it.
In the infinite and unlimited universe, finite and limited objects and events are born, grow and die with these laws. However, their death is to provide a new birth, in other words, to realize general development. Every new one gets old and leaves its place to a newer one. The replacement of the old by the new is the negation of negation. Because the old was once new and came into existence by negating the old one and presented itself as new. Now this negating new is negated by what is newer than itself. That’s why “no development takes place in any field unless old forms of existence are negated”.
The law of the negation of negation is the corollary of the law of the unity and struggle of opposites. Every object, event or process in the universe carries various opposite aspects and tendencies that try to mutually destroy each other. This is their fight. But all these opposing directions and tendencies are also closely interdependent, one cannot exist without the other. This is their union.
The negation of the old by the new in the process of development is nothing but the resolution and overcoming of the contradictions between the opposites. The law of the negation of negation is also organically bound up with the law of the transition from quantity to quality. Because negation means a transition from an old quality to a new one, which happens by leaps and bounds when the quantitative accumulations reach the required maturity. Every new is made up of the old and its positive parts and tendencies; this is why every new one also carries the features of the old that were found to be more perfected and developed.
Dialectal negation should not be confused with metaphysical negation. Metaphysical negation is the complete disappearance of the old (? N.), while dialectical negation is the preservation of the valuable aspects of the old and passing them on to the new. If this were not so, development would not have taken place. As a matter of fact, according to metaphysics, development is a vicious circle and is in the direction of returning to the past. Dialectical development understanding also accepts the existence of relapses from time to time in the development process; In the final analysis, however, development always proceeds from the bottom up, from the simple to the complex, from the bottom up, and from the less developed to the more developed. “To see world history as a flat, irreversible movement that always moves forward with great leaps is an opinion contrary to dialectics and science, it is wrong”. Flashbacks can always happen, but society is, in the final analysis, in constant progress. A socio-economic formation has always left its place and will be replaced by a more competent socio-economic formation. In the phase of the negation of the negation, development does not follow a straight path from bottom to top (such as the ascent of a spaceship into the sky), but follows a spiral path, as it more competently repeats the positive traits and tendencies of previous stages.
Dialectal negation must also be rigorously distinguished from mechanical negation. In mechanical negation, the negated object is destroyed by an external factor, in dialectical negation it is the developmental overcoming of its own internal contradictions that removes it. For example, we can step on an insect and kill it, this is mechanical negation; but the insect completes its life and dies on its own, this is dialectical negation. (So, instead of being killed artificially in capitalist society, it must die by itself because of its internal structure and contradictions, the revolution should only be made at the dying stage, i.e. when it rots N.) mechanical negation can also be useful in many situations; For example, harmful insects are destroyed in this way, flour and bread are made from wheat in this way. The expression of negation of negation is also expressed in our language with the phrase ‘reflection of negation’.