What is Neo Positivism, Neo Positivism?July 2, 2021
Neo-Positivism or Neo-Positivity is an idealist philosophy movement that reduces philosophy to language analysis and limits science to language. Positivism is basically based on the assumption that “we can know nothing but events” from the German thinker Kant.
In this respect, all idealist doctrines such as Neo-Kantianism, neo-realism, neo-Hegelism more or less necessarily reach a positivist conclusion: since we can know nothing but events, science will also be content with only examining events and not intrude into the domain of the ‘thing in itself’.
New positivists believe that by applying the doctrine of positivism to science in this sense, they have found an infallible criterion that can measure the value of scientific rules. This criterion is language and concrete logic studies. The knowledge of the truth consists of the data of scientific thought. So there is nothing left for philosophy to do but to analyze language. Philosophy and science are all business of logic. For this reason, it is also called new positivism, philosophy of science or logical positivism.
WHAT IS THE NEW POSITIVISM?
The foundations of neopositivism were laid by Bertrand Russell, L. Wittgenstein, M. Schlick, R. Carnap, H. Reihenbach, Tarski, W. Quine, A. Pap, G. Ryle, A. Ayer.
The distinctive feature of neopositivism is based on the semantic analysis of scientific terms. This idea, for example, concludes that, in the hands of the American semanticist, S. Chase, with the removal of the term ‘exploitation’ from the language, the phenomenon of exploitation will also disappear. By the term ‘event’ neophenomen understand subjective sensations and representations, not objective phenomena (apparent N.) and facts. According to them, science will only deal with events, but events have no objective reality, for example, whether a lemon really exists and how it came into existence cannot be questioned and examined. Lemon consists of only the taste that can be understood by the tongue, the smell that can be understood by the nose, the color and shape that can be seen with the eyes, and only these qualities can be the subject of scientific research and judgment. Science can never know the objective world.
The new positivists thus do not hesitate to call their assumptions scientific philosophy, even though they have completely destroyed the fundamental problems of philosophy and taken science from its most primitive side. What they actually do is simply subjective idealism, as they understand subjective sensations and representations by the term ‘event’. The new positivists have the same characteristics in the moral field. According to them, it is a moral opinion, a personal opinion and does not bind others. There are no objective moral rules. The result is clearly this:
Those who seek objective moral (social, moral N.) rules should invoke religion.
Neopositivism, as can be seen, is a reactionary idealist doctrine that exists outside of science and within all of metaphysics, despite its claims of turning its back on metaphysics and becoming scientific.
Subjectivist neo-positivism shows up in our age, with the same structure, under various names and schools. For example, the Vienna school founded by M. Schlick and his students in Austria, the Upsala school in Sweden, the Berlin scientific philosophy association formed by H. Reichenbach and C. Hempel and his followers, the Münster group (Scholz) in Germany, the Linguistics group in England. philosophy group and also Analytical thinkers following Moor (Stebbing. Wisdom etc.), German logician positivists (Carnap, Neutrth etc.) depending on Vienna group, Pragmatist neopositivist movement in America (E. Nagel, H. Morgenau, W. Quine, Morris, Bridgman etc.) and also many thinkers gathered under the name of scientific empiricism are neophenomists. The reason why so many professors pretending to be scientists are trying to create a storm in such a glass of water is not easily understood. It should not be forgotten that America, which was the center of imperialism, is also the center of neopositivism today. Some well-meaning scientists, who have fallen into this unscientific trend, admit the inability of nativism in the face of many philosophical problems and describe it as the crisis of neopositivism.
To reduce philosophy to grammatical (and logic N.) analysis is to destroy it. To call a destroyed philosophy a philosophy of science is something neopositivist philistines can do. For this reason, neopositivism is called the so-called philosophy of science.