What is Obligation?July 2, 2021
Fundamental and objective interrelationships of facts (lawsN.) Necessity in nature and society is the result of legality. Wherever the law operates, the requirement of that law is an obligation. For example, a dropped stone falls to the ground. It cannot fail to fall, it has to fall, because the law of gravity works on objects. Necessity and law are the essence of objects and facts. That is why, in dialectical philosophy, necessity, law and essence are closely related and express the ‘basic interrelationship’. Wherever there is a law, there is an obligation; wherever there is an obligation, there is a law.
Metaphysical philosophy opposes necessity to freedom and chance and contrasts them independently of each other. In this case, according to metaphysical logic, the existence of one of them requires the absence of the other. However, necessity and freedom and necessity and chance are interdependent, and without the existence of the one the other does not exist, and the one can become the other.
The universe is an infinitely diverse collection of phenomena. These phenomena are interconnected. This is a general connection that makes the universe orderly. The orderliness in the universe (for example, the alternation of night and day, the seasons, the fact that when wheat seeds are planted in the soil, it always produces wheat) is the result of this general connection. This connection is a relationship between phenomena that makes them dependent on each other. This dependence is a mutual dependence, making phenomena necessary for each other. But there is a fundamental connection between all these connections, which is what really determines and develops any phenomenon; in other words, that phenomenon cannot exist without it. For a phenomenon to exist and develop, it also needs non-essential (accidental) connections. However, the main relationship that brings phenomena into existence, determines, develops, and becomes whatever, is the “internal relationship”, which is inherent in them. This essential relation is the necessity, the law of the phenomenon. Additive external relations are accidental relations, they are not necessary, because it is possible for them not to be as well as possible.
By knowing and recognizing the laws, people dominate those laws and attain freedom in the face of those laws. They can consciously or unconsciously create or destroy foreign relations (the conditions necessary for the law to work), but they cannot create or destroy the law. The objectivity of laws and their independence from human will and consciousness also appear here. Thus, necessity is defined as the impossibility of not occurring under certain conditions. This impossibility arises from universal causation; To know that every phenomenon has a cause is to know that there is necessity. The ‘necessary cause’ that brings a phenomenon into being and what it is is the fundamental and internal relationship of that phenomenon. Knowing and recognizing this necessity of a phenomenon liberates a person (in the face of that phenomenon N) because he can influence the cause he knows and knows according to his purposes (it liberates him to the extent that he can change the will in the direction N.)
For example, as long as people did not know the cause of lightning, lightning was a blind necessity, a destiny for them; learning the cause of the lightning, they made lightning strikers and were freed from the lightning. Lightning falls necessarily by its own law of formation, but acquiring its knowledge takes one from this necessity to the level of freedom. The necessity that destroys the freedom of man is the necessity whose reasons are unknown (even though it is known, it cannot be interfered with).