What Is Pavlovism, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Pavlovism is the movement that adopts Pavlov’s method and theory, proving that spiritual processes consist of physiological processes. Russian naturalist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), one of the few great scientists of humanity such as Galileo, Darwin, and Einstein, put an end to the delusion of the non-material soul, which has led to various metaphysical constructs and created imaginary ideas for centuries, by definitively proving that spiritual activity is based on material. Pavlov’s scientific arguments have certainly resolved the fundamental problem of philosophy that has persisted from the earliest idealists to the present day. This whole approach is called Pavlovism.
Pavlov, who developed the findings on the reflective essence of mental activity of the Russian physiology scholar Ivan Mikhailovich Seçenov (1829-1905), who started to refute the idealism in physiology and psychology, scientifically brought the basic functioning laws of the brain organ to light with his experiments that produced conditioned responses (conditioned reflexes). It is now known that, as Pavlov himself put it, “spiritual activity is the result of physiological activity of the brain mass” (Pavlov, Collected Works, 1949 edition, vol. 3, p. 557).
So the soul (Psyche) is an activity reflected from material conditions. The analysis of the connection between the effect on the receptive sensory organs and the response that responds to this effect has completely illuminated the phenomenon of psychic activity. This connection is unconditional (unconditional) in the ongoing consistent living conditions. Humans and higher-order animals are born with this connection. For example, in the face of a certain danger, both humans and animals are afraid. These unconditioned responses are called instincts in animals and impulses in humans. The necessity of adapting to the environment of humans and higher animals is provided by this impulse and instinct.
However, humans and higher animals acquire new reactions due to new phenomena they encounter during their lives, these reactions are conditioned. Because it has been conditioned by new stimuli affecting the sensory organs. For example, most of the predators were not afraid when they first saw people, but when people started to hunt them, they started to be afraid and acquired new behaviors in front of people.
So they are conditioned. In fact, both unconditional and inherited unconditional reactivity are the result of old conditioned reactivity inherited from generation to generation. Pavlov asked his assistant, who was ten minutes late on the morning of the Russian revolution, “What’s wrong with the revolution when there’s so much to do?” By creating and analyzing these conditional reactions in his laboratory, which he calls the age of delusion, he completely destroyed the problem of the independent soul (argument N.). Pavlov’s experiments can be summarized briefly as follows:
The salivation of the glands when there is food in the mouth is an unconditioned response, that is, a phenomenon brought about by the material structure by itself and by experimentation, unconditioned. This phenomenon can also be created by the spiritual structure of the human species whose spiritual structure is developed, a person’s mouth watering when he dreams of a delicious meal. But immature animals can never imagine delicious food, and therefore their mouths water (I wonder? N.). Pavlov experimented that this physiological and material result could be brought about by activating the undeveloped spiritual structure of the dog, which is a highly animal, with a material stimulus.
Before giving meat to the dog, he rang a bell in one experiment and turned on a light in another experiment, and after repeating these experiments several times, he found that the dog’s mouth watered simply by ringing the bell or turning on the light, without giving meat to the dog. Mouth watering at the sound of a bell or seeing a light is a conditioned response, that is, a phenomenon that does not occur by itself, but occurs through the conditioning of the spiritual structure by a material stimulus.
This means that the animal learned to react to a new stimulus that it did not react to before, in other words, a spiritual structure was formed with a material stimulus. Pavlov determined that the amount of saliva in the unconditioned and conditioned responses was also equal to each other with a saliva measuring tube that the dog put in his mouth. “Once this point has been established, it follows that psychological phenomena are nothing more than a series of physiological conditioned reactions.”
With these experiments, Pavlov also discovered the physiological laws specific to the higher nervous activity of humans and animals. The identity and distinction between the higher nervous activities of humans and animals was brought to light by these laws: “It is clear that the study of the physicochemical formations that take place only in the nervous tissue will give us a true theory of all phenomena related to the nervous system.”
Pavlov tried not only the desire responses, but also the protection and avoidance responses. to the dog, obviously