What Is Phenomenology, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
(Os. Mebhasi şün, Scientific investigation and description of events; Fr. Phénoménologie, Al. Phenomenologie, English Phenomenology, It. Fenomenologia) Method of examining and describing the ideal existence of events… Event (Fr. Phénoméne) and science (Fr. Logie The term phenomenology, which is made from the words ‘Phenomenology’, was used in various meanings by Lambert, Kant, Hegel, Hamilton, Hartmann and was put forward as the name of the subjective idealist philosophy method by the German thinker Edmund Husserl (1859-1938). The common meaning of the phrase today is the one Husserl gave it.
Husserl argued that with this method, he would transform philosophy into a science of sciences by describing the ideal structures of objects. Thus, according to Husserl, the philosophy that Kant and Auguste Comte’s positivism, which was built on his foundations, in a sense banned, will be re-established in this way. Husserl, in this understanding, is based on the Platonic idealism and the teachings of Leibniz and Brentano. According to him, the truth must be absolute, as Plato suggested.
In other words, every object has a unique and unchangeable structure that is unique to itself, always valid and unchanging, apart from the meaning we give it and the features we attribute to it. The object is the existence of an eternal world of objects outside of people, not people. It is not the product of physics, nor is it the product of metaphysics. It is in its absolute ideal structure. Truth is the quality of one who has such an ideal nature. As you can see, this argument is purely Platonic. Despite starting from such an argument, Husserl, in his phenomenological method, will still watch the objects in the mirror of the individual human consciousness directed at them and try to describe them by contradicting his own thesis.
According to Husserl, philosophy is the science of grasping and describing the essence of objects through consciousness directed towards objects. Thus, the object without a subject can neither be grasped nor described. Coming back to Berkeley subjectivism is a necessary consequence of metaphysical thought, and Husserl cannot avoid this necessary result.
In order to reach the pure essences of Plato, which he regards as absolute truth, Husserl says in summary: I look at myself. I am full of various information. Apart from this information, I have various assumptions. I live by the behaviors that my knowledge and my thoughts require. I lost myself in the midst of information, assumptions, behaviors. What am I, apart from my knowledge, assumptions, and behaviors? In order to arrive at the pure knowledge of my essence—that is, the absolute truth, in Plato’s words, the pure essence—I must forget all my knowledge, assumptions, and actions. While I am researching myself, I will put in a bag and eliminate whatever is earthly in me and around me. I will strip from all that is given. Thus, I will be able to examine and describe the only being, the I, which I can say without any doubt that it exists absolutely.
This is not psychological research. Because psychology deals with me with my knowledge, my thoughts, my behavior. I am stripped of all this, remaining only a phenomenon. In that case, this study I will make is a phenomenological study. I will only examine and describe myself as a phenomenon. When I put all the earthlings in myself and around me—in other words, knowledge, opinions, behaviors—in a bag and disappear (Husserl calls it parentheses), I am left with an absolute self (Absolut Ego). I cannot be conscious of anything but myself. To grasp the universe, I must first grasp myself. Besides, I am not in a position to grasp anything but myself (the priority here is not a time priority, but a thought order priority, because time is also bracketed) according to Husserl. I have to perform an act of consciousness to realize myself. The only thing that reveals itself to me is my body. My body is the only object among all objects. What kind of object is my body? Looking from the outside, it is an object that I see. Looking from the inside, what I see is an organ, a living organism that is something other than a body. So my body is both an inanimate object and a living organism. In other words, my living organism is something with an inanimate body.
It’s not a duality, it’s a singularity. The organism and the bodily exist together in the body. I am a body-spirited whole. I can neither remove my body from my soul nor my soul from my body. I have to carry both together in unity, because only thus am I. I am a concrete psycho-physical whole. The fact that my body, which is an object, in other words, a substance, is also an organ of perception, explains the giving of my body to myself. I perceive myself as I perceive others. My left hand becomes the subject, my right hand perceives my object; then my right hand becomes the subject, the left hand perceives my object. My body was given to me in pairs. My body is not only an organ of perception, but also an organ of will. I use it at my will—that is, according to my will and freely. I live my I as a commanding being within my body. Try everything with my body