What is Philosophical Knowledge? What are the Characteristics of Philosophical Knowledge?June 26, 2021
Unlike other types of knowledge, philosophical knowledge deals with and tries to understand them as a whole, without dividing the universe, existence, human, society into sections or subjects.
Specifying philosophical knowledge is more difficult than others. It is even possible to say that the most important problem of philosophy is the problem of what philosophy itself is.
While trying to understand philosophical knowledge or philosophy, the right thing to do is to look at the work done by people called philosophers throughout history. From such a point of view, it is seen that philosophers have produced different concrete philosophies for different purposes and different functions in different times, in different cultures. However, it is observed that there are some common features in the work of people who live in these different times and produce different philosophies for different purposes.
The most distinctive feature of philosophical knowledge is that it is based on the thoughts that the individual puts forward with his mind about the universe, the world and himself. In other words, this type of knowledge is a type of knowledge that consists of consistent, unprejudiced, mind-based thoughts that emerge when the thinking subject (individual) wonders about the object (existence) and questions and understands it by turning to it.
Kant defined philosophy as “a form of mental activity that purports to justify or justify itself for reasons based on reason”. In our opinion, this attitude reveals a point that makes philosophy a philosophy and is common to all examples of philosophical thinking. Here, it is necessary to understand a wide group of reasons including all kinds of experiences, observations, all kinds of reasoning and intuition based on these. From the claim to “justify or legitimize”, it is necessary to understand “to present any proposition with evidence, grounds or facts that make it possible to put forward this proposition”.
Philosophical knowledge is universal because it is abstract, conceptual, rational and theoretical knowledge. Another feature of philosophical knowledge is its cumulative progress. In this respect, philosophical knowledge cannot be considered separately from previous knowledge. Philosophical knowledge also has a unifying and integrating feature. Philosophical knowledge tries to deal with man, existence and life as a whole.
Philosophy is an activity of asking questions, making inquiries. So, we can say that philosophical knowledge is reached by questioning. The questions of philosophy can be grouped under the heading of the meaning of life. While philosophy answers questions about the meaning of human life, it makes use of the information provided by other types of knowledge and sciences and gives general, holistic (universal) answers. Here are the questions that philosophy asks to obtain “philosophical knowledge”:
What is the general structure of the universe in which human life takes place?
What is the destiny of man in this universe?
Can a person know the universe he lives in and organize his life according to this knowledge?
What is beautiful?
What is true?
What is society?
What is a state?
Philosophy of knowledge is one of the leading branches of philosophy as a very important research area that deals with the concept of “knowledge” in terms of philosophy. This major is expressed in philosophical terminology by terms such as epistemology, gnoseology, and more commonly epistemology.
What are the Characteristics of Philosophical Knowledge?
Philosophical knowledge, like other types of knowledge, has some unique features. These can be listed as follows:
Philosophical knowledge is the product of a critical attitude that is curious, inquiring, questioning and researching. It emerges thanks to people who are curious about the beings around and the events.
Philosophical knowledge is a regular and systematic knowledge. What needs to be understood from order and systematicity is the effective use of logical principles in all subjects discussed in philosophy. When discussing subjects and concepts in philosophy, contradictory judgments and inconsistent views cannot be included. Any knowledge that does not have a systematic integrity among them is not philosophical knowledge.
Philosophical knowledge is cumulative knowledge. Accordingly, the reasoning and the conclusions reached by each philosopher affect each other, and a consistent whole is tried to be obtained.
Philosophical knowledge is unifying and integrative. When philosophers make statements about the universe, they do not look at a single aspect. It takes existence and life as a whole and tries to explain it without separating it.
Philosophical knowledge is universal. Everything that enters human life can be the subject of philosophy. Philosophy has the characteristic of universal knowledge because it embraces the general, deals with the existence as a whole, tries to understand the person who is thought in its essence and structure, not a specific person, and tries to base the values that exist everywhere at all times.
Philosophical knowledge is not progressive. In other words, the philosopher who came after the history of philosophy is not seen as someone who surpassed the previous thinkers and solved the problems that they could not solve. Because philosophy