What is Philosophy of Being (Ontology)?June 28, 2021
The question of what is the philosophy of being will be answered as follows: Philosophy of Being; It is the name given to the way of examining and thinking that investigates the most basic and unique aspects of the beings that are included in all areas of existence that are accepted as physical, mental or spiritual. The philosophy of being is also called ontology. That is, ontology or ontology; In the most general sense, it is a branch of philosophy that questions the existing things, the foundations of beings and the main bonds between beings.
WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF BEING?
What exists in a philosophical sense can be animate or inanimate matter like wood and fire, or something spiritual like thinking and intuition… Likewise, being can be something spiritual like belief. Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers in the history of philosophy, named the philosophy of being in this context as the “first philosophy” and defined the first philosophy as “taking the existing as existing, in its pure form”.
The philosophy of existence deals with the first causes and first principles of existence and investigates it.
This discipline, also known as ontology, ontology, ontology, or ontology, deals with existence in itself and understands its source, essence, qualities and categories (Hilav, 1985, p.212). Ontology is a philosophical field of study that examines existence in micro-macro dimensions, in terms of quantity and quality, and in terms of formation and content (Özyurt, 2000, pp.171-172). In this sense, ontology is one of the first and basic fields of philosophy, and it examines the entire field of existence, the cosmos, nature and the universe, and their formation, transformation and change (Değirmencioğlu, 1997, p.33).
Aristotle called the philosophy of being “the first philosophy”.
WHAT IS THE SUBJECT OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF BEING?
As the name suggests, the subject of the philosophy of being is existence. In this context, the philosophy of existence; It seeks answers to questions such as whether there is an existence, if there is an existence, how is this form of existence, does existence exist only physically, are there spiritual entities apart from material existence, and what are the qualities of existence. Philosophy tries to explain the existence and the events related to the existing as a whole with these questions. The result that this study wants to reach is to find and explain the principles that govern the entire world of existence.
Being in philosophy has very broad meanings. We can explain some different meanings of “being” as follows: In philosophy, existence means “substance”. Substance is a being that needs nothing but itself to exist. Another meaning of substance is the permanent being in which changes take place. For example, mind or matter are substances in this sense. In addition, in philosophy, a distinction is made between real existence and thought existence. Mount Ararat, pine tree and Aegean Sea are real assets. Mount Kaf, the fairy, and the mermaid are only thought beings.
The first of the questions to be answered in the ontology dimension is about ‘arkhe’. That is, “What is the beginning, the first substance of all beings?” search for an answer to the question. By answering this question, philosophers base their philosophy. Archea (substance, embers) is what is believed to have existed or assumed to exist when there was nothing in the universe. In the historical development, Descartes accepted as God, Hobbes as matter, Spinoza as God or nature, Marx as matter and change, Dewey as change and Satre as arkhe (Gökberk, 2005).
In short, the subject of the philosophy of existence is everything related to existence. Existence is everything that exists.
WHAT IS THE ASSET?
Being According to Science
Science deals with existence that exists independently of the human mind. Science tries to explain what is going on in this objective world by using the method of experiment and observation. Science examines existence not as a whole, but in parts. Each part of existence is subject to a separate branch of science. For example; Physics deals with motion, light, biology, the structure of living things, sociology, society.
Being in Terms of Philosophy
Philosophy examines existence as a whole. It questions whether there is an existence, and if so, what kind of (material, ideal or intellectual) existence it is. Philosophy tries to explain existence through reason and grounding it. The philosophy of being is historically known as the first philosophy to emerge. Since the first problems related to existence were handled, it was also described as the first philosophy. There are also those who describe it as natural philosophy because the first substance (archa) is sought, which is at the base of all that exists in the world and from which everything exists. Metaphysics and ontology are two concepts that express the same field. Metaphysics is a concept introduced by Aristotle’s students, meaning after physics. Metaphysics deals with God, the soul, immortality of the soul, whether there is life after death, etc. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues. Ontology, on the other hand, is a discipline of philosophy that seeks the “absolute”, that is, the existence-in-itself that remains behind appearances.
Is There an Existence or Not?
The problem of whether existence exists or does existence exist? We can collect the answers given to the question in two groups. One of them is nihilism (nihilism), which says “there is no being”, the other