What is Philosophy of Culture?June 27, 2021
The question of what is the philosophy of culture can be answered as follows: Philosophy of culture is the philosophical discipline devoted to explaining the essence, structure, development of cultural phenomena, cultural fields and basically culture and the meanings of this development, its order, order and, at the last stage, the laws of value. Since culture, which is the main subject of the philosophy of culture, emerged in history, the philosophy of culture is sometimes referred to with the philosophy of history.
WHAT IS CULTURAL PHILOSOPHY?
Man, as a social being and as required by his ability to use his mind, also thought about his own origin, nature, quality and the changes he had undergone in history, thus paving the way for the emergence of the discipline called cultural philosophy.
Philosophy of culture has a special philosophical position that is separated from other philosophical disciplines and can include all of these disciplines, as philosophy deals with the above-mentioned issues related to human, society and humanity. Because culture, which is its subject, language, religion, science, technique, art, morality, state, politics, aesthetics, etc., which is the subject of special philosophy disciplines. It consists of all titles.
Philosophy of culture is especially intertwined with “philosophy of history” as it wants to see and show the changes and transformations of all these titles in history and the connections between them, which is why most philosophers have even identified it with the philosophy of history.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy of culture has a deep historical breadth that can be traced back to pre-Socratic times. The philosophy of culture emerges in the form of the separation of the natural (physei) and the established (thesei), especially among the sophists. We can say that the subjects taken up by the sophists are nothing but the field of study of the philosophy of culture.
The philosophy of culture 8th century, Hesiod also sees it. In Hesiod’s poem, an evaluation of the cultural changes and different historical aspects of culture is encountered. He identifies five ages (gold, silver, bronze, heroic and iron ages) in his work “Works and Days”. The golden age is the heavenly age of humanity in Hesiod and it is always remembered with longing as a model for the ages that followed it. The golden age figure and longing left behind in Hesiod’s mythological poem is repeated in many ancient religions. Cultural changes in these mythologies and religions are made the subject of a normative evaluation under certain and currently valid religious/moral perspectives. Thus, we determine that the first intellectual orientations on culture came from mythologies and religions.
The phenomenon of a normative concern and a normative evaluation accompanying the cognitive desire to know culture and cultural changes has always been encountered from Hesiod to the present day. So much so that today, a normative cultural critique accompanies a cultural science and a philosophy of culture, and these are intertwined in most scientists and philosophers.
The philosophy of culture, which we can reach the beginning of before Socrates, appears systematically in the 18th century. in Italian philosophy: Giambattista Vico; Rousseau, Voltaire in the French Enlightenment; In the German philosophy tradition, especially Herder and Dilthey have come to the fore with their cultural philosophy studies. For example, the French philosopher Rousseau developed the philosophy of culture in the form of cultural criticism. As a criticism of cultural values, Nietzsche and Spengler also appear as the maintainers of the philosophy of culture.
HEGEL and CULTURAL PHILOSOPHY
Geist opens himself as Subjective Geist (Subjective Spirit), Objective Geist (Objective Spirit) and Absolute Geist (Absolute Spirit) in accordance with the triple movement of dialectic in the cultural world. Accordingly, the subjective Geist constitutes the human soul from its lowest level to its highest level.
Geist gradually eludes nature to become a free being directed towards himself, an independent reality that knows and recognizes itself. He is in an undeveloped state of mind and as such, he becomes the subject of research and examination of the science of anthropology. At this stage, where the soul has not yet completely escaped from nature, the corresponding form of perception is sensation. The soul then moves on to ‘feeling’ or feeling. The most developed and complete form of feeling is ‘feeling oneself’ and this is an intermediate step to consciousness. Consciousness thus passes through the stages of sensation, perception and understanding and recognizes itself as a free Self (Spirit, Mind).
He then recognizes and accepts other moles. Thus, Geist realizes himself as the Objective Spirit, and morality and the State emerge. This situation means that the ego gets rid of being in itself and rises from general rules and subjectivity to objectivity. Thus, the objective Spirit, which is valid for all and comprehends all, emerges. What we call history, according to Hegel, is nothing but the development of the Spirit that appears in peoples. At a certain moment in history, a certain people undertakes the development of the Spirit. of the soul in law, state, morality and history.