What is Philosophy of Information? (What is Epistemology?)June 28, 2021
Philosophy of knowledge is one of the main disciplines of philosophy. The philosophy of knowledge has taken the concept of knowledge as its subject. Knowledge is a subject that has been discussed since the First Age. It was only in the New Age that this issue was perceived as a philosophical problem and tried to be grounded. Since this period, the philosophy of knowledge continues to exist as a branch of philosophy that examines the source, value and limits of knowledge.
Acquiring knowledge, knowing and learning are among the most basic instincts of human beings and the most basic features that distinguish them from other living things. These motives have fundamentally affected human activities everywhere and at all times since the emergence of man. In other words, the history of acquiring knowledge, and therefore knowledge, is as old as the history of humanity.
In the first periods of philosophy, people focused their attention on the object of knowledge, not the subject. This means that in the early stages of philosophy, people were not interested in the “knowing subject” but “the object that is the subject of knowledge”.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE PHILOSOPHY
We can say that philosophy first emerged as a “natural philosophy” with the famous philosopher Thales, in the city of Miletus, south of Izmir, in the Mediterranean cultural environment.
Thales, the founder of the Miletos School, said that the arche of everything, that is, the main substance, is “water”. Likewise, Anaximandros said that the arche of everything is the infinite and unlimited “aperion”, and Anaximenes said that “air”. These are thinkers who concentrate and comment on the object.
History of Philosophy of Information
Early Greek philosophers such as Heraclitus, Parmenides, Democritus and Anaksagoras raised the first questions, doubts and debates regarding the possibility, source, limits and criteria of knowledge. As a result, the subject of “knowledge” came to the agenda of philosophical thought; sophists, Socrates and followers such as Plato and Aristotle.
Basic concepts of the philosophy of knowledge; truth (truth), reality and grounding. Truthfulness is that the thought or the asserted argument conforms to its object. Reality is all that exists in time and space. Justification is the task of finding the basis and justification for the assertion.
SUBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE PHILOSOPHY
The origin of epistemology coincides with approximately the 7th century BC. Thales wondered what the basic element that made up nature was, and researched it. This philosophy, which emerged from the effort to comprehend nature and its formation, was first called “first philosophy”, then “natural philosophy” and “metaphysics”.
This means that the first philosophers focused on existence and nature and tried to understand nature. Until the end of the Middle Ages, this was the main area of research in general.
In the 17th century, with the discoveries of Columbus, the Renaissance, the Reform movements and the emergence of a new understanding of science, philosophy entered a period called “information theory turn”. Prominent philosophers have begun to argue that we should ask some other questions before making a claim about existence. For example: “What can human beings know?, “What is knowledge?, “What does it mean to know something?”, “Are there limits to human knowledge?” etc.
As a result of this, the philosophy of knowledge (epistemology) was born, which investigates what knowledge is, how and in what ways it is obtained. Epistemology is a word derived from the Greek words “episteme” meaning “true knowledge, systematic knowledge, verifiable knowledge” and “logos” meaning mental explanation. The main founders of epistemology are the French philosopher Descartes (Descartes, 1596-1650), the English philosopher John Locke (Con Lok, 1724-1804) and the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (Immanuel Kant, 1632-1704).
Fundamental Questions of the Philosophy of Information
“What is information?”
“What does it mean to say I know something?”
“What can I know?”
“How do I get the information?”
“What are the elements of knowledge?”
“What are the criteria and conditions of knowing?”
“What are the types of knowledge?”
“Is there a limit to knowledge?”
BASIC CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION THEORY
Accuracy: It expresses the full conformity of the information with the information obtained. Accordingly, accuracy; perceptions, concepts, and conformity between scientific theories and objective reality.
Reality: It is the mode of existence of existence. It exists independently of consciousness.
Grounding: It is the task of finding a basis, justification, basis for a question or an assertion put forward.
TOPICS ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE
What is information theory (epistemology)?
The relationship between information theory and logic
Source and criteria of information
Field, scope and limits of knowledge
What is the subject of the philosophy of knowledge?
What are the fundamental questions of information theory?
The problem of the possibility of true knowledge
The impossibility of correct information
What is accuracy?
What is skepticism (septicism)?
What is rationalism?
What is empiricism?
What is criticalism?
What is positivism (positivism)?
What is analytical philosophy (analytic philosophy)?
What is pragmatism (utilitarianism)?
What is phenomenology?
Language as the Essence of Human Knowledge