What is philosophy? What are the different definitions of philosophy?December 21, 2019
In a simple and general definition, philosophy can be expressed as sev love of wisdom..
Aristotle , while describing philosophy as the science of the first causes, the philosophy of the events of the basis of the universe to investigate the essence of the meaning has been loaded (Ergun, 2006, p.56). However, it is not possible to say that philosophy is purely metaphysical. Especially with the new age, the main field of study of philosophy has been science, and as a result, philosophy of science has been born and “evaluating the truth as a whole” has been generally accepted. It is generally accepted that philosophy arises from myth, religion and poetry. In time he laid the foundations of original thinking and tried to explain the truth completely; has gained the meaning of life perspective (Özyurt, 2000, p.166). From time to time philosophy, covering all sciences, mathematics, physics, anthropology, biology, science, astronomy, sociology and psychology.
Historically, it is stated that the term philosophy was first used by Pytagoras, but the term philosophy (Philosophia) gained its definite meaning in Plato and Aristotle philosophy. Philosophy, the origin of which is based on the Greek term philosophia, consists of a combination of the words “love” (philia) and “knowledge, wisdom” (sophia) (Akarsu, 1988, p.80). In the dictionary, the following meanings are loaded on philosophy (Oğuzkan, 1993, p.56):
Philosophy is the thought activity which aims to examine the whole of reality (reality), matter (matter) and all kinds of signs related to life in terms of causes, principles and aims (goals / aims). Philosophy is a method of thinking that seeks clarity in the analysis and criticism of knowledge, concepts, beliefs and theories. Philosophy is a collective and coherent set of views that serve to guide a person’s behavior and thinking. Philosophy is a broad field of science, consisting of branches such as logic, morality, goodwill, trans-physics and information theory in general.
As stated, it is very difficult to explain philosophy with a single definition. The following three views that reveal what philosophy is widely accepted (Sözer, 2002, p.83):
- Philosophy is an effort to understand the nature of man and the structure and functioning of the world.
- Philosophy is a never-ending deepening of the way of finding and teaching the truth.
- Philosophy is a way of thinking that leads to good, right and beautiful.
The term philosophy consists of a combination of the words “love” (philia) and “knowledge, wisdom” (sophia), whose origin is based on the Greek term philosophia.
Different Definitions of Philosophy
Philosophy is an attitude towards life and the universe: It is possible to define every attitude and understanding that focuses on the personality of the individual in daily life as philosophy at the basic level. For example, it can be said that the understanding we put forward in a trade is the product of a philosophical view. Even details such as using domestic goods, not choosing branded clothing, preferring a grocery store instead of a street market are the results of a glance and include a simple philosophy. Moreover, it is clear that national independence, political opinion on the country and world administration, media and newspaper preferences and views on religious belief are attitudes towards life and the universe. The perspectives in the examples are in fact reflections of a conscious or unconscious philosophical understanding. In short, philosophy is a worldview and a viewpoint to life, the whole universe is an effort to capture and capture (Sönmez, 2002, p.4).
Philosophy is a method based on rational analysis and creative thinking: Philosophy aims to examine events and phenomena based on rational thinking principles and techniques in a systematic way. Philosophy in this context is now different from the philosophy in a simple and narrow sense and carries academic value. Philosophy teaches people to think on many issues in terms of correct, open and cause-effect relationships and evidence-based thinking. Philosophical thinking methods prepare the necessary foundations for people to reason in almost every subject (Cevizci, 2007a, p.30). For example, when we look at events and phenomena in daily life, we make use of reasoning techniques such as induction and deduction.
Philosophy is an effort to obtain a certain view of the universe and the whole: Philosophy allows the systematization of the knowledge and experience gained by the individual from past to present. This process is in a sense the creation of an individual worldview. However, philosophy is not a narrow, one-way understanding of events and facts; aims to look holistically. The philosopher’s point of view is not to see life from the point of view of a businessman or artist’s own field of expertise; aims to be understood as a whole (Tozlu, 2003, p.8). Philosophy here distinguishes “philosophy of thought” from felsefe critical philosophy.. Philosophy approaches the more holistic and universal by taking the ideas and results of different fields of science and study.
Philosophy is both a problem and a theory about the solution of problems: Philosophy aims to love information and wisdom as the origin, to search for accuracy, to reach solid information with free thought and criticism and to organize life accordingly (Hilav, 1985, p.14). In this context, philosophy constantly strives to solve problems and problems. In philosophy, as in some fields of study, such as science and religion, it is very weak to speak of the results that are believed to be accepted and accepted for accuracy and certainty. According to Kant, belki There is no philosophy to learn; however, there is philosophy, philosophical thinking. üyle In this respect, philosophy expresses a continuous search (Şişman, 2000, pp.87-88). Philosophy constantly works to identify problems in all dimensions and solve problems with a holistic approach. In short, philosophy is a system of thought that tries to examine and interpret everything in the universe in a general and systematic way (Sözer, 2002, p.83). With this system of thinking, philosophy involves the methodical solution activities of all kinds of problems related to human life or disturbing people.
Philosophy is the analysis, synthesis and understanding of concepts: The definition of philosophy can not be made, it is a view of the upper language, is a generally accepted understanding (Sönmez, 2006, p.62). This is generally accepted opinion; analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and the basic task of understanding the philosophy. On the other hand, there are two kinds of opinions. The first view imposes on philosophy the function of explaining all words and concepts through analysis. The other view suggests that philosophy has the duty to enlighten and explain all life-related experiences (Tozlu, 2002, p.10). In short, philosophy; event, phenomenon, condition, condition, concept and life as a whole can be said to make sense and explanation activities. Philosophy guides the sciences and proposes methods: One of the basic characteristics of philosophy is guiding and proposing methods. Plato, philosophy has a unique method of using the dialectic method, indicating that (Cevizci, 2007b, p.22). Science and philosophy are initially intertwined. Although the relationship between science and philosophy continued after the 17th century, with the new age, some fields of science began to separate from philosophy. The basic similarity between philosophy and science is that both are the products of reason (Cevizci, 2007a, pp.24-25). However, the duty of philosophy in this context is to show the methods and techniques of reasoning. Philosophy as a field of study ‘logic’ tries to fulfill this function (Cevizci, 1997, p.456). century, but continued with the new age, although some areas of science began to separate from philosophy. The basic similarity between philosophy and science is that both are the products of reason (Cevizci, 2007a, pp.24-25). However, the duty of philosophy in this context is to show the methods and techniques of reasoning. Philosophy as a field of study ‘logic’ tries to fulfill this function (Cevizci, 1997, p.456). century, but continued with the new age, although some areas of science began to separate from philosophy. The basic similarity between philosophy and science is that both are the products of reason (Cevizci, 2007a, pp.24-25). However, the duty of philosophy in this context is to show the methods and techniques of reasoning. Philosophy as a field of study ‘logic’ tries to fulfill this function (Cevizci, 1997, p.456).
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), Open Education Philosophy Textbooks