What is philosophy? What does philosophy mean?December 21, 2019
Philosophy is basically divided into two: religious philosophy, scientific philosophy.
Religious philosophy is based on a god, connects the natural causes to the supernatural, a god, and scientific philosophy is based on nature and science. Religions are religious philosophy as well as idealist philosophies. Materialist (historical and dialectical materialist) philosophy is a scientific philosophy as well as the only scientific philosophy.
Philosophy can also think about issues that science has not yet explained, and think about issues that science explains more or less. Philosophy can make supernatural, religious or scientific judgments on these issues. Philosophical judgments are speculative until they are confirmed by science, and after it is confirmed by science, it becomes science. So philosophy is speculation, as Bertrand Russell says.
It is the philosophy of scientific science to reflect on the principles, laws, theories, and methodology of science, the data of science, what they mean, whether they are true, and to try to arrive at scientific generalizations in mind. It is a scientific philosophy of science, because there is also a non-scientific philosophy of science in which the data, principles, laws and theories of science are distorted and connected to God.
The main purpose of religions, philosophy and science is the same; bring an explanation to the universe.
Religious or scientific, in general, philosophy is to know what Socrates does not know and to know himself. As Aristotle says, it is the science of principles or first causes, an ‘operational system’ designed to provide a happy life. As Plato put it, it is düşün intellectual work towards finding the right way çalışmak. The main subject of philosophy is universe and life.
Religious philosophy is explained as follows: According to Augustinus, ‘knowing God’ is ‘true philosophy and true religion are identical’. According to Tertullian, philosophy is to explain ‘dogma’. According to Anselmus ‘trying to understand what is believed’. According to scholastics, philosophy is the proof of the conformity between reason and dogma. According to Thomas of Aquino, the subject of philosophy is God, and philosophy is the promotion of God. According to Scottus Eriugena, philosophy is ‘the science of the believer’.
Scientific philosophy, as Abaclardus put it, is to investigate whether it is worth believing. As Epicurus said, knowing that everything is a natural cause, getting the right information and taking the right action and giving unrest to the human being, unhappily and distorting the state of ataraxia, which is the greatest happiness, is a natural world view by avoiding unnatural thoughts. to acquire.
As Hegel said, philosophy is to explain the universe. Philosophy, as Giordano Bruno said, is knowing nature. As Francis Bacon said, it is to think about scientific data based on philosophy, experimentation and observation. As Auguste Comte put it, philosophy is a science, a science of science, which unites all sciences. As Ludwig Feuerbach puts it, philosophy has to be constantly connected with its natural sciences and its natural sciences with philosophy. As dialectical materialism (Dialectic Materialism) says, Philosophy is the science that determines the general laws of all kinds of development. Philosophy means seeking and obtaining the path of knowledge, philosophy cannot be without science, science cannot be without philosophy, and philosophy, like science, must be realized by moving from concrete and scientific intuition to abstract thought and from there to concrete practice.
Philosophy is a universal science that is based on science, which changes and strengthens with science, integrates with universal understanding of dependence, unity and being, which determines the general laws which are the basis of all phenomena of natural, intellectual and social universe and all kinds of development in discrete continuity.
To reflect on scientific data and to draw conclusions from them. It is not only to grasp and explain the material external world with our consciousness determined by the material external world, but to grasp and explain it scientifically (based on science) as it is without adding anything to nature, and to change the world as it is. It is the only scientific guide to transforming the prehuman age into the human age.