What is Platonism?

What is Platonism?

The objective doctrine of Plato and his followers. It is also called idealism, speciesism and the doctrine of the Academy. The ancient Greek thinker Aristocles Plato (I, T.427-347, Plato name is a moniker that was attached to him because of the athlete’s structure on his broad shoulders. His real name is Aristocles. He is also the founder of Western metaphysics. If we change the phrase ür thinkers met to metaphysics, the American thinker Emerson’s statement would also be true: kadar What has ever been written and discussed among thinkers comes from Plato. ”

In the historical development of ancient Greek thought, the materialist side flew in Democritus (460-370 BC), while the intellectual side flew in Plato. The fundamental problem of philosophy is the contradiction of materialism and thought, which has been expressed in the discussions between the supporters of these two thinkers in ancient philosophy. Plato, the spokesperson of the ancient Greek aristocracy and the oligarchy of slavery society, developed the rationality and abstractism of his teacher, Socrates (469-399 BC), to whom he was very attached. Since they are written in the form of conversations, his works called dialogue are the product of this development. Despite his great imagination, his poetic language and his ingenious expression, he was a reactionary thinker in every respect. Not only does he argue that the material and objective world is not real, he also opposed trade, which provided the evolution of the world at that time, and sought to abolish trade (”Plato’s socialist side, N.), by abolishing trade with the claim that the individual“ pollutes his soul ”. The state design, which is now described as a dreamlike socialism, arises from the idea of ​​a country that does not engage in trade and is therefore morally moral. This state should also be a state that would not blame and kill its master Sorates, and would leave it to him and others like him. In his eyes, this state is the traditional Sparta rather than Athens, which accelerates social evolution with its economic trajectory. a country that does not trade and is therefore morally moral. This state should also be a state that would not blame and kill its master Sorates, and would leave it to him and others like him. In his eyes, this state is the traditional Sparta rather than Athens, which accelerates social evolution with its economic trajectory. a country that does not trade and is therefore morally moral. This state should also be a state that would not blame and kill its master Sorates, and would leave it to him and others like him. In his eyes, this state is the traditional Sparta rather than Athens, which accelerates social evolution with its economic trajectory.

The German philosopher Karl Marx describes his state as Atina the idealization of the Egyptian caste system by Athens ”. Despite all this, it is undoubtedly that Plato’s doctrine is one of the real foundations of contemporary philosophy in terms of its deep focus on social and political problems. The sources that prepared Plato were Socrates, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Heraclitus. Socrates from the moral (N. N.) world view, good ideas and has the tendency to research astrology. Orphic from Pythagoras adopted religious elements, immortality and beyond world beliefs, religious-mysterious philosophy attitude, mathematical explanations. From Heraclitus, through her Heraclitus teacher before Socrates, Kratylos, he received the fact that there was nothing that remained unchanged and remained the same in the universe. (But he will abuse this truth very much and say, ki Since there is nothing that does not change in the world, so the real facts that do not change are outside the world)). Another famous student of Socrates was Eucleides of Megara who introduced and endorsed Parmenides, the first metaphysicist in the history of thought.

Plato, the most influential thinker of classical philosophy, has a total of five theories: State, Idea, Knowledge, Universe, Immortality.

Plato has always remained a theologian in the theories of knowledge, idea, universe birth, immortality, and state, and has endeavored to realize it with all of this. Because, according to him, the purpose of philosophy, together with his master Socrates, is to ensure the competent life of man. This competent life is only possible with virtue. The basis of this virtue is knowledge, its essence is ideal, its justification is the birth of the universe, its assurance is immortality, its vital structure is the state. Knowledge is the basis, because virtue is an information business and is created by knowledge. The philosopher (Yu. Philosophos) is the one who has the wisdom, that is, the right information. An ordinary person loves all good things, and wise loves goodness itself. Because good things are good because they carry the general structure of goodness. Goodness is a generality of all good things, very different from special goodness. It has not occurred with one good and will not end with one good, it has no place in space and time. Individual goods are good because they have a more or less common structure with the general good, and because they have more or less the general good, but they are different and multiplied. It means that the person who loves one or more of the different goods is based on a blood (Yu. Doksa), whereas the wise who loves the good itself (Yu) (Episteme). Plato’s famous theory of ideals arose from his understanding of knowledge Plato, the theory of knowledge with two maturity dialogs (Symposion, Politeiai phaidros) (Timaios, Theiatetos). According to Plato, knowledge is the knowledge of the immutable, if so, it can only be grasped.

Those who cannot comprehend this are content with the assumptions and the convictions of the changed ones that they perceive with their senses, which is outright ignorance since it is not real knowledge. Plato tries to present his argument in the 7th book of Poilteia with the example of a famous cave or cavern: ölç Now, measure our knowledge and ignorance with Glaukon. Design a cave underground. The door of the cave leads to a lighted road. But the people sitting in the cave have their arms, necks and legs tied with chains and their backs turned to light. So much so that they can only see the cave walls facing them, they can’t turn their heads back, and since they know themselves they have been sitting here. Imagine that a lot of objects pass through the illuminated path behind the ridges, and the light reflects them on the wall of the cave. Now these men can only see dreams reflected on the wall of the cave, they cannot see the real objects that make up those dreams, can they? that is, if these men could talk to each other, they would give the names they had on the wall some names, because they thought they were real. In the eyes of these men, reality is nothing but the dreams or shadows of the real facts reflected on the wall. Now let’s unchain one of these guys to stand up and turn his head into realities. Her eyes dazzled by plenty of light and she couldn’t see the realities, could she? Moreover, he would turn his dazzling eyes back to the wall and look at the dreams on the wall. But by slowly adjusting his eyes, he could well look at the source of the original light. It was then that he would realize that what he had seen with his friends was nothing but a dream, that the real truth was what he was seeing now. Here, dear Glaukon, this world that we see with our eyes is the wall of that cave, and the person who can look at the light behind it is the sage who turns the senses into the eyes us (Ibid, 514a and later, summarized).

According to Plato, knowledge is a recall of something formerly known. Because Plato believes in the immortality of the soul and that this immortal soul has seen the world of truth (ideals) before it enters the mortal body. People are born with this information, but they only remember them by education (Socrates solves a problem of geometry by asking a person who has no knowledge in the Menon dialogue to solve a problem of geometry, in other words, reminds him of his knowledge before he was born). Plato explains this recollection in the Phaidros dialogue as follows: “It is impossible for a soul without real knowledge to enter the human form. Because in order to be human, it is necessary to know and know the ideals that reduce the plurality of sensory assumptions to rational one. This is where our souls once followed a god and stretched his head to the truly real, it is nothing more than a recollection of a universe in which he saw and recognized them. Every human soul, by nature, has seen real beings. But not all people can remember this. Few souls have this ability to recall, among them there are fewer who can fully recall. Due to the weakness of our organisms, few of us can look at the dreams of facts and recognize which are the dreams of facts. You and me are these happy people ”(Ibid, 249 b, d; 250 b, c. Summarized). they can look at the dreams of the truth and recognize which of these are the dreams of the truth. You and me are these happy people ”(Ibid, 249 b, d; 250 b, c. Summarized). they can look at the dreams of the truth and recognize which of these are the dreams of the truth. You and me are these happy people ”(Ibid, 249 b, d; 250 b, c. Summarized).

According to Plato, research is useless if what is researched is known, but what is researched is impossible if it is not known. So research or thinking can be on something that is both known and unknown. This is nothing but remembering. If the human mind can find and reveal truths through research or thinking, it is because it has these facts from the beginning (Menon, 81 d). It is for this that the slave that Socrates made speaks only with thinking that he found that another square, which is twice the size of a square, consists of the square drawn on its diagonal (Ibid, 82b, 85b). That is why “It is true that philosophers’ thoughts are winged” and that is why philosophers “are the ones who know best to remember and remember,“ they pulled their skirts from the things that make people struggle, they are attached to the deity (Phaidros, 249 c). Socrates is therefore a fertilizer, what exists is born, what is not cannot be born: ait Have you ever heard that I am the son of a noble midwife, Phenarete, and I am engaged in the same work, Theaitetos? This is real. But don’t tell others. If you remember the requirements of the art of midwifery, you can easily understand what I want to say to you. I’m a midwife too. I’m delivering men, not women. Those who start talking to me seem to know nothing at first. But as the conversation progresses, they open up and remember. However, they obviously have not learned anything from me. They find the best information only from themselves koy (Theaitetos, 148 e, 149 b, 150 b). Recall that “we find the courage and effort necessary to investigate what we have lost and to find it again” Menon, 81 d, e; 86 b). The real information remembered is not the images conveyed by our senses, but the realities that we see and recognize in our life of godhood.

Although the traces and signs of the doctrine of ideals are found in many works such as Gorgias, Menon Euthydemos, Kratylos, Meneksenos, Theaitetos, Parmenides, Sophistes, Politikos, Timaitos, Kritias, the main works are four dialogues of maturity (Symposion, Phaidon, Politeia, Phaidon). First of all, it is necessary to say that Plato’s theory of ideas is an assumption. In the 7th book of the Politeia dialogue, Plato says, düşünce Is it true or not, God knows it? ”(517 b), and while constructing this hypothesis, it is based on the assumptions that it does not count as real and does not consider it true. After the above statement, he said: “But I think that this is the best and lasting ideal of human being in this comprehended world. When he chooses it, he has to come to the following conclusion: His good ideal is the cause of all that is true and beautiful in all things. He created the light in the world seen. He is the sovereign in the comprehended world and the source of truth. In order for man to behave wisely, he must have seen and recognized him ”(517 c).

With his theory of ideals, Plato first addressed the question of universals that had been discussed in metaphysical philosophy throughout the ages. According to him, the philosopher will not deal with countless trees in the sensible world, but the ideal tree in the comprehensible world. As each person name shows an individuality, each genus name represents an ideal. The universes are a form (Yu. Eidos), the sensible objects are made according to this example format. These kind of forms are not permanent and unchanging realities that come and change like temporal objects with examples. For example, good man dies, good behavior is forgotten, but his good idea does not die and is unforgettable. The beautiful woman goes away but beauty has always lived and will always live. Knowledge, however, is the knowledge of these constant and sound ideals. Idea is absolute. Sensible objects have a small piece, something special, taken from the ideal. Beautiful woman is ugly next to a beautiful woman. The idea of ​​beauty, on the other hand, is absolutely identical with itself at all times and in every space. The idea of ​​beauty owes its uniqueness, continuity and immutability to its non-substance. If it were material, it would be transient, relative variable, and discontinuous. So only ideals are self and absolute truth, audible objects are only temporary copies of ideals. The world of objects, that is, the material world, is nothing but a world of symbols with no realities. Solid information cannot be installed on discontinuous, temporary, flimsy objects. The subject of knowledge is not the temporal materialisms, but the ideal and first example of these materialisms. As seen in the cave example given above, ides, which are a permanent reality, have created a dream universe consisting of temporary images. The world of objects is visual and inferior, and the world of ideals is real and divine: “Zeus drives the winged chariot in the heavens. He sees everything, arranges everything. Then the gods and the army of daimons followed him in eleven battalions. Hestai (absenteeism-god) was left alone in the house of the gods. Thus, only eleven of the twelve ruling gods head at the head of their company. Divine movements and happy appearances revive the sky. The gods wander in the sky to see the work that is made for each. When the gods eat their food at the feast, they rise to the highest point of the sky. When the immortal souls reach this climax, they go out of the rainbow and turn to watch the truth outside the rainbow. No poet of the earth has ever imagined it and expressed it. But I’m going to try to tell you, he shouldn’t be afraid to tell the truth. A colorless, formless, fact whose existence is uncertain with its presence; but there is the truth that the mind that rules the soul can see. It is the home of true knowledge. The spirits, fed with intelligence and pure knowledge, are happy to watch the truth until they complete the cycle of the dome and bring them to the same point. The spirit thus sees the self-righteousness, the wisdom and the knowledge when it is transferred with the rainbow. But what he sees is neither knowledge in the form of being, nor knowledge other than those in the objects that we call beings in our present life. The soul that watches him thus, enters into the sky and returns to his place ”(Phaidros, 246 e, 247 e). Just as there is a degree and order of beings from the uncompetent to the most competent in this seeming realm, so are the real and graded ideals of the realm that can be grasped by reason. According to Plato, the process of knowing is a kind of ladder that comes up from one side and descends from the other side. On one side of this ladder, we generalize the objects from the lowest to the most competent, on the other hand we go down to the diagnosis of the ideal equivalents of these generalizations. Ideals are connected to each other by ideals that are higher than themselves (ie, more general). Just as there is a degree and order of beings from the uncompetent to the most competent in this seeming realm, so are the real and graded ideals of the realm that can be grasped by reason. According to Plato, the process of knowing is a kind of ladder that comes up from one side and descends from the other side. On one side of this ladder, we generalize the objects from the lowest to the most competent, on the other hand we go down to the diagnosis of the ideal equivalents of these generalizations. Ideals are connected to each other by ideals that are higher than themselves (ie, more general). Just as there is a degree and order of beings from the uncompetent to the most competent in this seeming realm, so are the real and graded ideals of the realm that can be grasped by reason. According to Plato, the process of knowing is a kind of ladder that comes up from one side and descends from the other side. On one side of this ladder, we generalize the objects from the lowest to the most competent, on the other hand we go down to the diagnosis of the ideal equivalents of these generalizations. Ideals are connected to each other by ideals that are higher than themselves (ie, more general). staircase On one side of this ladder, we generalize the objects from the lowest to the most competent, on the other hand we go down to the diagnosis of the ideal equivalents of these generalizations. Ideals are connected to each other by ideals that are higher than themselves (ie, more general). staircase On one side of this ladder, we generalize the objects from the lowest to the most competent, on the other hand we go down to the diagnosis of the ideal equivalents of these generalizations. Ideals are connected to each other by ideals that are higher than themselves (ie, more general).

As we generalize the steps of the stairs, we find the ideas of the best on the top and the top. The highest, the most powerful, the most powerful idea is the ideal of the good that surrounds the whole system. According to Plato, man’s spiritual abilities are from the weak to the strong: the ability to take blurred images, the ability to perceive, the ability to understand, the ability to reason. The first two of these four abilities are related to the world seen and form the domain of consciences, the last two, meaning (Yu. Dianoia) and us (Yu. Nous), are related to the grasped world and constitute the field of knowledge. Against this, there are four things, from the weak to the strong: images, animal-plant-man-made things, math concepts with down-grip objects, ideals with up-grip objects. The first two of these objects are related to the world seen and are the subject of the subject area, The last two, mathematical concepts and ideals, are related to the world that is being comprehended and are the subject of knowledge. The universe is a spirited and intelligent creature formed by an epic (Regulatory god, Yu. Demiurgos). This regulator (not creator) has found and shaped an eternal matter as primitive as himself. The irregularity before intervening is a mechanical necessity that Democritus had advanced. However, in accordance with the doctrine of ideals, the world is also an image and shaped by analogy with the world ideology known to God. It is in the form of a sphere because it is the only form that can be similar at every point. It turns, because the only movement for non-handicap is to return. It is unique because it cannot be more than one since it is made as the most possible copy. It had to be first and endless, because its ideal is first and eternal. According to Plato, in order to provide this similarity to the ideal, God also shaped this time in addition to the universe. According to Plato, the world will come many times, because the soul is immortal. The soul must be immortal, because the ideals could not have been known and recognized and recalled: “Every soul is immortal. Because everything that is constantly in motion is immortal. It is not living when the movement stops and that moves and moves another. It is the only spontaneous being that is always dynamic since it cannot leave itself. Moreover, it is a movement source and principle for all other beings. This principle is unprincipled, born of nothing. Since born is a principle of everything, the principle itself is unborn. If the principle was born of something, its principle would not remain. Since the principle is not born, there can be no end. Because if the principle had disappeared, it would never have reborn. Since everything must be born out of a principle, the existence of the principle in the first and endless is undoubtedly. Therefore, the self-moving entity is the principle of the movement. This is neither possible nor can it be reborn. Otherwise, the sky above us and all living beings would have been immobile and vanished. It would also be impossible for them to be reborn and to move. A soul is something that has its movement in itself. No one will hesitate to confirm the immortality of the soul when it is thus proved that the necessary immortality of the spontaneously moving entity. Every object that takes a giant from the outside is soulless, and every body that comes from inside has a soul. Since everything must be born out of a principle, the existence of the principle in the first and endless is undoubtedly. Therefore, the self-moving entity is the principle of the movement. This is neither possible nor can it be reborn. Otherwise, the sky above us and all living beings would have been immobile and vanished. It would also be impossible for them to be reborn and to move. A soul is something that has its movement in itself. No one will hesitate to confirm the immortality of the soul when it is thus proved that the necessary immortality of the spontaneously moving entity. Every object that takes a giant from the outside is soulless, and every body that comes from inside has a soul. Since everything must be born out of a principle, the existence of the principle in the first and endless is undoubtedly. Therefore, the self-moving entity is the principle of the movement. This is neither possible nor can it be reborn. Otherwise, the sky above us and all living beings would have been immobile and vanished. It would also be impossible for them to be reborn and to move. A soul is something that has its movement in itself. No one will hesitate to confirm the immortality of the soul when it is thus proved that the necessary immortality of the spontaneously moving entity. Every object that takes a giant from the outside is soulless, and every body that comes from inside has a soul. It would also be impossible for them to be reborn and to move. A soul is something that has its movement in itself. No one will hesitate to confirm the immortality of the soul when it is thus proved that the necessary immortality of the spontaneously moving entity. Every object that takes a giant from the outside is soulless, and every body that comes from inside has a soul. It would also be impossible for them to be reborn and to move. A soul is something that has its movement in itself. No one will hesitate to confirm the immortality of the soul when it is thus proved that the necessary immortality of the spontaneously moving entity. Every object that takes a giant from the outside is soulless, and every body that comes from inside has a soul.

In ten books of Politeia’s second book, Plato enters the example of the ideal state, in an analogous way, as follows: Accuracy can also be found in a single city as well as in a single person. So let’s make the eyes look like a weak man. First, let’s look at what the truth is in the city, and then we go back to that one person, we look for the little one in the small. The greater the accuracy, the larger the diameter, the more easily noticeable. So let us look at the birth of a city in order to see more closely the truth and goodness ”(Politeia, 2nd book, 368 d, e; 369 a). Plato’s state is, of course, a utopia and the first of the ideal fantasies of society. Prior to that, no such study is known. However, it is not correct to claim that Plato society is the first product of utopian socialism. Plato’s state is an aristocratic and totalitarian state, based on slave labor. It is classed, and not the principle of equality between classes, but rather the principle of inequality. It is not established for a social and economic (? N.) purpose, but for a political and theoretical purpose. The free development of the individual is not intended, but rather spent for the sake of a theological society. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. it is not correct to claim that it is the first product of utopian socialism. Plato’s state is an aristocratic and totalitarian state, based on slave labor. It is classed, and not the principle of equality between classes, but rather the principle of inequality. It is not established for a social and economic (? N.) purpose, but for a political and theoretical purpose. The free development of the individual is not intended, but rather spent for the sake of a theological society. In Plato’s terminology, virtue and statute mean that every human being can only perform his or her own duty and not try to exceed his designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. it is not correct to claim that it is the first product of utopian socialism. Plato’s state is an aristocratic and totalitarian state, based on slave labor. It is classed, and not the principle of equality between classes, but rather the principle of inequality. It is not established for a social and economic (? N.) purpose, but for a political and theoretical purpose. The free development of the individual is not intended, but rather spent for the sake of a theological society. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. It is classed, and not the principle of equality between classes, but rather the principle of inequality. It is not established for a social and economic (? N.) purpose, but for a political and theoretical purpose. The free development of the individual is not intended, but rather spent for the sake of a theological society. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. It is classed, and not the principle of equality between classes, but rather the principle of inequality. It is not established for a social and economic (? N.) purpose, but for a political and theoretical purpose. The free development of the individual is not intended, but rather spent for the sake of a theological society. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream. In Plato terminology, virtue and statute mean that each person does not only perform his or her own duty and does not try to exceed its designated place in society. In the history of thought, Plato is the best example of how unscientific speculation can dream.

The Humanism  movement, which started with translation activities for Greek and Latin thought,  concentrated on translating the works of the Antiquity thinkers especially in the 15th century.

Plato ‘s first works attracted attention  . One of the leading Platonists,  Plethon founded a Plato Academy in Florence with the support of Cosimo de Medici (1440). This academy aimed to translate Plato’s works firsthand.

Defending Platonism against Aristotelianism was one of his main tasks. After a while, these efforts resulted in a predominance of neo-Platonic lines rather than Platonism. Thanks to the Academy, many thinkers who learned Plato from its source took part in the Platonic wing. One of them was  Pico Della Mirandola and another was  Marsilius Ficinus  (1433-1499). According to Ficinus, Platonism was the essence of human wisdom, and if it could be harmonized with the Catholic doctrine, it could rejuvenate it and make it a more spiritual doctrine. According to him Plato and  Aristotle‘s philosophies were actually two different expressions of the same truth. Ficinus saw Christianity as a form of God’s opening himself and tried to reconcile this religion with philosophy. The universe is a regular system of steps with God at its head. The human spirit is also derived from God and will return to God after death. All connections to the universe are found in the human soul. Therefore, man has the power to know the whole universe. These ideas are more Platoist rather than Platoist.

Nicolaus Cusanus , the most original thinker under the influence of the new Platonism (1401-1464) Main works: De Docta Ignorantia (1440). De Conjecturis (1440). De Pace Seu Concordantia Fidei (1453). Cusanus’ philosophical approach shifts between scholastic influences and the Renaissance spirit. Therefore, it can be considered as a transitional thinker. It is not surprising that the knowledge of God has an important place in his philosophy as a neo-Platonic thinker. According to him, reason is insufficient to obtain the knowledge of God. Though mind can give us a world knowledge: the ability to visualize scattered sensory data that comes to consciousness through our senses, and as a result, designs or concepts emerge. Our minds, working on these designs or concepts, combine them by exploring the relationships between them, and thus our knowledge is formed. However, our ability to think tends to create an absolute unity by eliminating the divergences between the information, but it is blocked in this way. Because the mind cannot function without multiplicities and differences. For this reason, Cusanus realizes that he cannot attain the knowledge of God, which represents absolute unity, in this way, through his ability to think. This situation is called Cusanus learned ignorance (docta ignorantia). This means that he knows the limits of his ability to think, and God is beyond that limit. Then there must be another way to reach God. This situation is called Cusanus learned ignorance (docta ignorantia). This means that he knows the limits of his ability to think, and God is beyond that limit. Then there must be another way to reach God. This situation is called Cusanus learned ignorance (docta ignorantia). This means that he knows the limits of his ability to think, and God is beyond that limit. Then there must be another way to reach God.

According to Cusanus, it is a kind of intuition, in other words a mystical way of enlightenment. In this way a view can be obtained without understanding or conceptual knowledge. In other words, God can be seen through the eyes of heart. The mystical person may attain his appearance, not perhaps the conceptual knowledge of God, in a mysterious experience of ecstasy. God is the absolute being in which all opponents reach unity in himself; eternal substance in things. Thus, essence and substance, appearance and reality, privacy and openness is one and the same thing in it. In it all values ​​are absolute. The world is an expansion of God. The unity being turned into multiplicity; the multitude is unity in God. God is the secret essence of all things, so every real thing is the essence of all things. This means an all-deity. However, this point constitutes a contradiction in Cusanus’ philosophy. Because, by embracing the Christian view, it affirms the difference of the world from God: God is the unity of all opponents, and in nature all opposing forces appear to be scattered over time and space. Öz The essence of things is not identical to the Divine essence; things are finite and cannot fully realize the divine ideal ideal (Thilly, 2007: 7). Therefore, in the final sense, God and nature are not identical.

Reason is not capable of gathering our knowledge under one unity. The mind, which becomes aware of this, reaches the so-called learned ignorance, and is reached by God, who represents absolute unity, by reason, not by reason, but by mystical enlightenment.

As for science, Cusanus denied the Aristotelian conception of the universe. This view paved the way for Kepler. According to him, the view that the universe has a limit is unacceptable. The universe has neither a center nor an environment. The place where the subject stands serves as the center. Since we are on this planet, we have accepted this center as the center. All of Cusanus’s views are progressive in the name of science, but he has not systematically and justifiably demonstrated a scientific theory of the universe. Tüm He based all of his views on nature more on his own abstract arguments and logical measurements and inferences. All these views of  CopernicusIt is accepted that they are aware of and benefit from these views in their age-opening work ”(Çelik, 2010: 209).

Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook