What is Pluralism, Pluralism?June 29, 2021
Pluralism or Pluralism is the doctrine that accepts that more than one principle is fundamental in the explanation of reality. Pluralism is the doctrine that suggests that the universe consists of many entities that cannot be reduced to each other, that there is a tendency to seek unity in the universe, that religion, philosophy and politics are not only one, but many principles and truths are intertwined.
Pluralism is essentially the general name for theories or systems that place more than two absolute principles, power or matter at the center of things. In this context, there are different types of pluralism acting on the same basis in different subjects.
For example, in political philosophy, any theory or system that involves the distribution of powers distributed among several political parties that emerges with the acceptance of pluralism is also pluralistic; Ontology understandings that connect the existence of existence to more than two elements are also evaluated within the framework of pluralism.
PLURALISM and ELEA SCHOOL
In ancient Greek philosophy, Eleans came to the forefront as an influential school of philosophy. Indeed, once the views of the Elea School were set forth, there were four alternatives:
To accept the views of the Eleans, their notion of substantial being, and to abandon completely empirical, empirical investigation of the world.
While accepting their views, reconciling or synthesizing these views with the views of the ancient Ionian School or the worldview of common sense.
To adopt the Eleatic view, but also to adopt the view that man can only have conjectures about the world of appearances, which are not entirely unreal, do not create an absolute illusion. And finally,
To reject the Eleatic views altogether and to argue that the outer world of appearances is real and that man can only come into contact with this world through his senses.
The fourth way out of these will be adopted by the Sophists or Sophistic philosophy after a while, as a result of a great shift or change of interest. The third way is Socrates, who will first deal with ethics and political philosophy rather than a research on nature or metaphysics; then it will be mainly preferred by Plato, who will turn to problems not only of ethics and political philosophy, but also of meaning, epistemology, and metaphysics. The second path will be followed by the pluralists, who represent a real synthesis or compromise in pre-Socratic natural philosophy.
These pluralist philosophers are Empedocles, Anaksagoras and atomist Democritus. Their pluralism finds its expression in the fact that these philosophers tend to more than two arkhes, unlike the monism of philosophers who lived before them, that is, their approach that puts a single arkhe on the basis of existence. Accordingly, axiomatic pluralism manifests itself in Empedocles with four root substances from which existence arises, in Anaxagoras with an infinite number of seeds or homoomers, and in the Atomic School with an infinite number of atoms.
Pluralists, after asserting the existence of a large number of basic archhes or beings, which they defined in Eleatic terms, and defining them as reality, explained the whole world of multiplicity or appearances with these plural realities.
Indeed, after the great influence of the Elea School, which cannot be ignored in any way, pluralist philosophers have adopted high-level abstract philosophy or metaphysics and common sense’s point of view, with Parmenides’ strong philosophical arguments that deny change Heraclitus or common sense regards change as the most basic and clear phenomenon of the outside world. They had to come to a compromise between the evaluative point of view.
Accordingly, almost all the propositions or views of Parmenides about Being are correct. Being is simple and eternal; that is, it was not created and is indestructible. In this sense, Being does not change in any way. Pluralists, on the one hand, approve these theses about Being, on the other hand, they accept change as an obvious phenomenon and express this consensus with a pluralist hypothesis. According to this, the change in the external world is explained by the fact that the first matter or elements, which are simple, eternal and unchanging, come together in different proportions to form complex objects.
Another important innovation of the pluralist philosophers is that they realized for the first time the importance of agent cause or agent-caused explanation in the explanation of the external world. In other words, philosophers such as Empedocles and Anaxagoras, who emphasized the importance of agency-caused explanation, opposed the hylozoism of the first natural philosophers, that is, the understanding of living matter that would explain its own motion, and sought an external power that would set the eternal but inanimate matter in motion. The agent power in question is transcendent, not immanent to beings or matter in Empedocles and Anaxagoras; it is conceived as a spiritual power rather than a material one in itself.
PLURALISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The First World War and the Second World War in the first half of the twentieth century; social, political, economic etc. cause many shocks and destruction