What is Political Philosophy?June 28, 2021
Political philosophy; on issues such as the state, government, politics, freedom, property, legitimacy, right, law; What are these concepts, why are they needed, what legitimizes a government, what freedoms and rights should the state protect, in what form should the state be institutionalized, what is the law, what are the obligations of the citizen to the state, etc. The philosophical field that seeks answers to fundamental questions is the philosophy movement.
Political philosophy critically deals with all its concepts and problems, for example, political problems such as the state problem, in terms of being fit for purpose.
WHAT IS POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY?
Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the problems of politics, political systems, the behavior of people defined as political animals in a certain political system, with methods specific to philosophy; It is the branch of philosophy that deals with political life, especially the essence, source and value of the state.
Political philosophy, which was born in ancient Greece, deals with the power, nature and source of political authority, and the relations between political authority and the individual.
Political philosophy, which examines how political institutions can be developed, and how the relations between the state and the individual can be improved, today mostly focuses on the concept of ‘democracy’. In other words, the main problem of political philosophy, which deals with the problem of democracy with the concept of civil society-state, on the basis of the ideals of freedom and equality, is the problem of how public power, political power, should be used and to what extent it should be limited in order to preserve and improve the quality of human life.
Political philosophy is the study of every subject that is of interest to politics. While political philosophy tries to understand the structure that makes up politics, the source of sovereignty and power, it also aims to offer suggestions. Philosophers from the past have put forward ideas about how the best government can be. With these ideas, ideal state, society and individual constructs were created. In political philosophy, the issues of right, justice, freedom, the source of power and whether there can be an ideal state order are among the prominent problems.
Philosophy, which emerged in ancient Greece, has always been the activity of bringing rational explanations to the problems related to existence, knowledge and human activities, and rethinking these problems in a critical way.
Likewise, a rational theory of state and politics emerged for the first time in Ancient Greek civilization. Ernst Cassirer expresses this situation with the argument that the Greeks were pioneers in providing rational explanations in the field of politics, as in every field. Therefore, every philosophy has to be both a rational thought activity and a critical thinking activity.
The concept of rationality in philosophy means grounding. In this sense, rationality or grounding is to give an explanation to any problem with a logos, which means a word based on reason.
Politics is known as a human activity related to the regulation and execution of state affairs in terms of the general dictionary meaning. The term “politics” originates from the word “politics” in Ancient Greek and has passed into Western languages in this way. From the ancient Greek point of view, it means activities of the life of the polis, as the Greek equivalent of the term indicates.
The concept of “polis” in ancient Greek is a term that corresponds to the city-state. The term also refers to the community of citizens within the city-state. Ancient Greek political life developed within city-states.
What politics is, first of all, is closely related to what people are. Because politics is one of the human activities. Because man is a being who establishes a state while living in a society, and he brings new questions and solutions to the problems he encounters in his life. In this sense, political theory or Political Philosophy is based on a long historical tradition that includes the development of human thoughts on political problems that transcend time. Aristotle (384-322 BC) also understands all the activities of the society for its own whole from the concept of politics.
Politics is both the name of a human activity and a field of knowledge that takes this activity as an object and reveals information on this subject. With this second usage, politics has a dual meaning: as political science and political philosophy. According to political science, politics is the reconciliation of conflicting subjective interests in a particular society by the governing power in accordance with the general will of the society. Political philosophy, on the other hand, generally inquires into the possibility of the unity of the subjective will of certain groups or individuals in a society with the general will. It also shows the approach of political science and political philosophy to this phenomenon of politics.
The general distinction between political philosophy and political science is that political science describes the forms of government, political phenomena and processes, in other words, it described the phenomenon as it is.