What is Pyrrhonian Skepticism, Pyrrhonism, Pyrrhonism?June 29, 2021
“No one knows anything, even that is not certain.” It is Pyrrhon’s doctrine of skepticism, based on the understanding of The understanding of skepticism that emerged as a reaction to metaphysical fabrications in human thought begins with the Ancient Greek scholars; but skepticism as a way of philosophy, as a new understanding, is accepted as the teaching of Pyrrhon.
The main motto of this skepticism can be summarized as follows: You cannot trust what you believe to be true; because you might be wrong about them. In this context, it can be said that everything is questionable and everything can be doubted. Therefore, keeping an open mind, not being blindly committed to one thought, will protect us from disappointment.
This is the core doctrine of skepticism, a philosophical trend that was popular for several centuries in ancient Greece and later Rome. Pyrrhon skepticism is also called radical skepticism. Pyrrhonism; It appeared as a reaction against the passion for knowledge that the trio of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle kneaded and placed with a joint effort.
Pyrrhon is the philosopher who laid the foundations of Pyrrhonism.
The purpose of the Pyrrhon is to achieve individual happiness. For this, he wanted to prevent human thought, which lacks the necessary scientific data, from being disturbed in vain by being caught in constructs with contradictory problems. He advises people to reach spiritual tranquility by avoiding certain judgments about objects. With these advices, he shook the primitive dogmatism of the Ancient Age to its roots. According to Pyrrhon, the essence of objects cannot be understood, therefore precise knowledge is impossible.
It should neither confirm nor deny knowledge; It is enough to be suspicious of him. The only correct thing to do is to avoid judgment. You may think you know a lot. For example, you know that you are reading this article on this page right now, right? But skeptics are philosophers who question your knowledge. Think about why you believe you are actually reading this article right now, not just imagining that you are reading it. Can you really be sure of that? You seem to be reading…. But perhaps you are mistaken or dreaming?
According to this understanding, happiness is not in knowledge and wisdom, as suggested by the trio of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle; because you can’t be sure of that. Therefore, happiness is only in peace of mind. This peace of mind can also be provided by carelessness, not vain efforts to obtain precise information. As can be seen, Pyrrhon only wishes to suspend the incomprehensible and to avoid certain judgments. This skepticism nevertheless leads to the necessary conclusion that objective truth cannot be known.
Pyrrhon did not act out of his own life while advising to avoid judgment and advising calmness and carelessness: It is said that Pyrrhon is famous for keeping his cool when one day while traveling by ship, he was caught in the middle of one of the most terrible storms ever. A strong wind breaks the sails of the ship, huge waves pound the boat.
Everyone around him is frightened, but Pyrrhon is unaffected by any of them. Since appearances are often deceiving, he will not be able to be absolutely certain of any damage from the storm. He remained calm when even the most seasoned sailors panicked. It has proven that it is possible to remain indifferent even under these conditions. This story is probably true.
Speaking of happiness… Pyrrhon philosophy put forward three questions that everyone who wants to be happy should ask:
What is the real structure of objects?
What should our stance be towards objects?
What do we gain from a correct posture towards objects?
Answer one: We cannot know for sure what the world is like; it is something beyond our understanding. No one can know the ultimate nature of reality. It is not possible for humans to obtain this information.
Second answer: We should not surrender ourselves to any view. Since we cannot know anything for sure, we must suspend all judgment and live our lives avoiding judgment. Every desire you have shows that you believe one thing is better than another. When you can’t get what you want, you become unhappy. However, you cannot know that one thing is better than another. So in order to be happy, we need to free ourselves from our desires and not be concerned with how things turn out. This is the way to live right. Realize that nothing matters. Thus, nothing will disturb your mood, that is, your peace of mind.
Third answer: At first you stay silent because you probably don’t know what to say about anything. Finally, you will be free from all your worries. This is the best one can expect from life.
Not all skeptics in the history of philosophy are as extreme as Pyrrhon. A tremendous moderate skepticism that questions and looks closely at the evidence for what we believe, rather than living as if everything is in doubt all the time.