What is Pythagoreanism? Pythagorean School, Pythagorean Academy, PythagoreanismJune 27, 2021
The Pythagorean School or Pythagoreanism is a school of Ancient Greek philosophy distinguished by its theological, scientific and philosophical views. The philosophical approach of this school is called Pythagoreanism.
Pythagoreanism, BC. Founded by Pythagoras in Croton in Southern Italy in the second half of the 6th century, it represented the Western tradition in the Ancient Greek philosophy, as opposed to the Eastern tradition established in Ionia.
Another difference of the Pythagorean School from the Ionian School is that the philosophers within the Pythagorean tradition formed not only a school of philosophy, but rather a religious sect and even a political organization or community.
WHAT IS Pythagoreanism?
Pythagoreanism is an Ancient Greek thought that takes its name from its founder, Pythagoras. His thoughts were spread and preserved in a school discipline over time.
It is difficult to penetrate the depths of the teaching as a significant part of the teachings of this school is secret. Pythagoreanism carried the Ionian tradition to Athens. After the Persians conquered Ionia, the philosophy of Miletus came to an end. It is thought that Pythagoras may have been born in the 580s.
In the painting named “The School of Athens” drawn by Raphael, Pythagoras is shown while trading.
Another important feature of the Pythagorean School is the change in the motif that gave birth to philosophy and created philosophical thought. According to this, philosophers in Ionia deal with philosophy and philosophy itself, while philosophizing for the sole purpose of understanding and knowing; In other words, while philosophy in the East was based on purely theoretical concerns or interests, Pythagoreans dealt with philosophy for purely practical purposes.
The aim here is to purify rather than to understand or learn; It has been to unite with the spirit of the universe by being purified through knowledge. In other words, for the Pythagoreans, philosophy went beyond being an explanation of how and why existence came into being, and became a way of life.
For the Pythagoreans, the aim is to save people, that is, to get them out of the wheel of birth and death, and to purify them in order to reach this goal, rather than to give people information about the universe.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE PYTHAGORIC SCHOOL
For Pythagoreans, form came to the fore instead of matter, quantity instead of quality, and mathematics instead of physics. Accordingly, where the Ionians took matter as the basis of the material cause from which a thing was born, the Pythagoreans emphasized mathematical principles and accepted that the structure of something, the function it had to fulfill, the purpose to which it was directed would only be explained when it was revealed. This is why the Pythagoreans are characterized as mathematici, where the philosophers of the Ionian School are described as physici.
As it can be understood from here, the Pythagoreans are the philosophers who are the initiators of the tradition of mathematical thinking, which will strengthen with Plato in Western philosophy and reach its zenith in Cartesianism, with their understanding that the key to understanding many different aspects and aspects of reality is number, ratio, and therefore mathematics.
They also developed a number metaphysics, not only with the idea that the explanation of existence or the world is an explanation to be realized through numbers, but also by suggesting that the world is a number in a sense.
It is said that the expression philo-sophia (love of wisdom) was first used by Pythagoras. The word Sophos also appears in Homer, but Pythagoras was the first to use this word in the sense of philo-sophos, which would later become the name of the discipline of philosophy.
According to Homer, sophos meant skill-ability-to do something just for the pleasure of that knowledge, and also meant wisdom. Pythagoras also asked what existence is, thought that philosophy is a way of life, and used the term theorikos bios (theoretical life) to express this way of life.
According to Ptyhagoras, there are 3 types of people: Those who seek glory; those who seek materialism; seekers of knowledge.
Pythagoras said that he was knowledge-loving, that is, philosophos. According to him, philosophy is a theoretical way of life (theorikos bios).
According to Pythagoras, everything is made up of quantities. The fact that everything consists of numbers means that we can understand the universe in mathematical expressions. This is the basis of modern science. The use of speculative and pure reason is predominant in the philosophy of the Miletos school. These include observation and speculation. They form a certain view about the world, about the universe, without experimenting. They took their basic assumptions from mythology, but they followed a natural way in explaining natural events. They think that they cannot reveal basic information without reasoning.
According to the Pythagoreans, an eternal fire burns in the center of the universe. All celestial bodies revolve around this fire. One of the celestial bodies orbiting fire is the opposite world. Although these objects are spherical, they do not rotate around themselves. The world is spherical. The world revolves around a centre, but does not revolve around itself. HE IS