What is Radicalism? RadicalismJuly 2, 2021
Fundamentalism or Radicalism is the philosophical teaching that proposes a radical change of political principles. Fundamentalism or Radicalism is the name given to the doctrine of radical change put forward by the trio of British thinkers Bentham, James Mill and John Stuart Mill in various areas of intellectual life, which envisages the change of fundamental political principles altogether. This is also called philosophical fundamentalism.
The basic idea of this teaching is individualism. They foresee the granting of full and unconditional freedom to the individual in all economic, moral and political fields. The chairman of this trio of thinkers is Bentham. All three advocated the doctrine of utilitarianism, which eventually gave birth to pragmatism. They called it ethical utilitarianism. They were associative in their psychology. In politics, they wanted the elected government and the deputies to be given full authority and the greatest power in the state.
They found the highest good and happiness in the useful. They advocated making the human mind the real and only criterion. Although they were deeply liberal, they were egalitarians, and it is claimed by some writers—for example, Bertrand Russell—that they unknowingly paved the way for socialism. Although the scattered and metaphysical thinking of these thinkers had nothing to do with scientific socialism, fundamentalism nevertheless found its best expression in Marx.
In his Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Marx says: “To be radical is to take things up from the root, and the root for man is man himself”. Politically, XIX. At the beginning of the century, the members of the British liberal party who wanted democratic reforms and the members of the Republican party who opposed the moderate members of the Republican party called opportunists after the proclamation of the 1876 constitution and wanted radical changes were called radicals.
Later, the groups and parties that united in the desire for order change all over the world, despite being in opposition to each other, were called by this name and adopted the slogan of not being an enemy on the left. In addition to this, right radicalism also emerged and many outdated and reactionary movements, from German racism to American McCarthyism, were called radicals.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım