What is Relativism? Relativism, RelativismJuly 2, 2021
Relativism is a form of orientation that has always been on the agenda in the history of philosophy. Relative approaches in the fields of epistemology and ethics, which are subdivisions of the philosophy of relativism, have been particularly influential.
In the understanding of knowledge, Relativism differs from the understanding of absolute and objective truth, doubting the certainty and general validity of knowledge. The proposition that all knowledge is relative is the main argument of this movement. In ethics, relativism denies the existence and possibility of absolute moral values. According to them, knowledge or moral values change according to historical conditions, periods, societies, cultures and people.
Relativism has also been influential in the philosophy of science; Especially in the 20th century, after the scientific and theoretical developments related to quantum physics, relativity has developed.
Relativism is the concept in physics of the interchangeability of measurements and laws of physics for observers in different states of motion relative to each other.
In classical physics, it is assumed that all observers throughout the universe will make identical measurements of space and time, whether they are in motion or not. On the other hand, according to the concept of relativity, the results that observers find in their measurements depend on their relative motions.
Relativism is the idea that opinions are related to differences in perception and thought. According to relativism, there is no universal, objective truth; each point of view has its own truth.
Great categorical relativity varies in scope and degree of views. The relativism of morals encompasses differences in moral judgments between people and cultures.
True relativism is the doctrine that absolute truths do not exist, that is, relative to a particular frame of reference (cultural relativity), such as an actual language or culture. Descriptive relativity, as the name suggests, tries to understand the differences between cultures and people without evaluating them; normative relativism, on the other hand, evaluates the morality or correctness of views within a certain framework.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHY RELATIVISM
Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance in which researchers suspend (or bracket) their own cultural biases when trying to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local context.
It has come to be known as methodological relativism and is concerned specifically with preventing ethnocentrism or applying one’s own cultural standards to the evaluation of other cultures.
This is also the basis for the distinction between \”emic\” and \”etic\”; where: an emic or insider behavior account is a description of a society that is meaningful to the participant or actor’s own culture; Emic calculus is therefore culture-identical and typically refers to what is considered “common sense” in culture under observation.
An ethical or alien account is the definition of a society by an observer as applicable to other cultures; that is, an ethical account is culturally neutral and typically refers to the conceptual framework of the social scientist. (This is complicated when there is scientific research being studied or when there is disagreement in the social sciences theoretically or terminologically.)
By contrast, the philosophical relativistic thing claims that the truth of a proposition depends on the metaphysical or theoretical framework, or the instrumental method, or the context in which the proposition is expressed, or the person, group, or ashtray who interprets the proposition. Methodological relativism and philosophical relativism may exist independently of each other, but most anthropologists base their methodological relativism on philosophical diversity.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım