What is Roman Philosophy?

What is Roman Philosophy?

December 22, 2019 0 By Felso

The intellectual life of the ancient Romans. First, as an alba colony, Rome was a country where people who pursued freedoms and established the greatest empire of the early age, depriving the whole world of freedom, were inhabited by people with vigorous (practical) purposes. It is for this reason that Rome has no particular thought of its own. “Rome worshiped the gods of the whole world, Bir says a theologian. Rome worshiped the gods of the whole world and tried to make use of the ideas of the whole world in their interests.

It is for this reason that eclecticism is the only intellectual method that is a true Roman invention. Romans can be regarded as the founder of pragmaticism centuries before the Americans, making them useful by selecting and combining ideas that best suit their personal tastes and interests. In terms of intellectual life, the most typical Roman Cicero is Lucretius, the greatest Roman. Philosophy entered Rome in 1515, when Stoic Diogenes, Peripatosian Kritolaos and Academician Karneades came to Rome as ambassadors to Athens and gave lectures there. Romans, especially in politics and good speech, to take advantage of her interest. There are traces of meeting Pythagoras philosophy in Ennius. Later, the stoic Panaitios came to Rome and his Roman friends Scipio, Lucullus, Laelius and so on. they are attracted to philosophy under his influence. Seeing the Roman nobility engaged in philosophy draws the attention of the Roman youth to this field. Finally, the stoic Poseidonios gave lectures in Rhodos, where he met Cicero and Pompeius among his listeners.

All Greek teachings are slowly flowing to Rome. But only two doctrines can be held: Stoicism and Epicureanism. Stoicism owes this success to Civero, a true Roman, and Epicurianism to Lucretius, a true scientist. Cicero responds to the longing of spiritual attachment in Stoicism; In the Epicurean Lucretius also longed for scientific knowledge. The famous thinkers of Roman stoicism were Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC), Annaeus Seneca (3-65), slave Epictetus (50-130) and emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180).

Cicero

The importance of Cicero is that he established the language of Roman philosophy rather than his stoicism. He says, like the old stoicists, the most real law is the right one. Right mind; it is a force that is appropriate to nature, the same in all beings, unchangeable and indestructible. Seneco (Seneca N.), Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, who were the main Roman representatives of Stoicism, developed stoicism in a ritual and religious direction. Although the Stoic is supported, Cicero argues against the doctrine of the Stoa, suggesting that some people have a innate slave nature, and those who do manual work are found in the lowest strata. (See Roger Labrousse, Introduction a la philosophie Politique, Paris 1959, p.89). According to Cicero … razor He orders what we have to do and forbids what we should not do. The criteria of nature distinguish between good law and bad law. Nature distinguishes between theoretically beautiful and the ugly. The understanding is in nature and from there it spreads throughout the universe ”(Des Lois, French translation, 1). Hence, Leonard rightly says: en Eclecticism is a direction that chooses the most suitable for personal taste from various systems and is entirely Roman property. Cicero, the chief representative of this direction, clings to the productive suspicion of the middle Academy in the doctrine of knowledge, faltering between the ethics of Stoa and Peripatos in morality. Fights against Epicurus without recognizing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). The criteria of nature distinguish between good law and bad law. Nature distinguishes between theoretically beautiful and the ugly. The understanding is in nature and from there it spreads throughout the universe ”(Des Lois, French translation, 1). Hence, Leonard rightly says: en Eclecticism is a direction that chooses the most suitable for personal taste from various systems and is entirely Roman property. Cicero, the chief representative of this direction, clings to the productive suspicion of the middle Academy in the doctrine of knowledge, faltering between the ethics of Stoa and Peripatos in morality. Fights against Epicurus without recognizing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). The criteria of nature distinguish between good law and bad law. Nature distinguishes between theoretically beautiful and the ugly. The understanding is in nature and from there it spreads throughout the universe ”(Des Lois, French translation, 1). Hence, Leonard rightly says: seç Eclecticism is a direction that chooses the most suitable for personal taste from a variety of systems and is entirely Roman property. The chief representative of this direction, Cicero, clings to the productive suspicion of the middle Academy in the doctrine of knowledge, faltering between the ethics of Stoa and Peripatos in morality. He fights against Epicurus without knowing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). it is in nature and from there it spreads throughout the universe ”(Des Lois, French translation, 1). Hence, Leonard rightly says: seç Eclecticism is a direction that chooses the most suitable for personal taste from a variety of systems and is entirely Roman property. The chief representative of this direction, Cicero, clings to the productive suspicion of the middle Academy in the doctrine of knowledge, faltering between the ethics of Stoa and Peripatos in morality. He fights against Epicurus without knowing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). it is in nature and from there it spreads throughout the universe ”(Des Lois, French translation, 1). Hence, Leonard rightly says: seç Eclecticism is a direction that chooses the most suitable for personal taste from a variety of systems and is entirely Roman property. The chief representative of this direction, Cicero, clings to the productive suspicion of the middle Academy in the doctrine of knowledge, faltering between the ethics of Stoa and Peripatos in morality. He fights against Epicurus without knowing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). in ethics, it falks between Stoa and the ethics of Peripatos. He fights against Epicurus without knowing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103). in ethics, it falks between Stoa and the ethics of Peripatos. He fights against Epicurus without knowing the essence of philosophy ”(Hense-Leonard, Hellenic Latin Ancient Knowledge, Suat Yakup Baydur translation, Istanbul 1948, c. 1, p.103).

Annaeus Seneca (3-65 AD), despite the spiritualist outbursts of believing in the immortality of the soul, it has brought new values ​​to Stoicism, especially in terms of naturalism. The following letters indicate his Stoic ideas: Is it better to have restrained passions or no passion, do you think Lucilius? .. Our Stoics do not want any passion. Aristocular people tolerate some, provided that they are restrained. I, for my part, do not understand how the body can benefit from an illness. Don’t be afraid, I’m not going to separate you from anything you don’t want taken away. I will only take the bad and the bad. I take the lust and the misery of you, but I leave you everything that can make your life sweet. Where they lead you, you lead them. I don’t know that all the passions come from the natural source. These, is necessary to endure living. However, lust and misery are necessary only for themselves, not to bear life. Then let’s close these doors. Because it’s easy to get them inside, but it’s hard to throw them out, Lucilius… (Letters to Lucilius C16). What do you mean, slave, Lucilius? Aren’t you the real slave because of your lust and gluttony? We all come from the same root, the same source. Nobody is more noble than anyone else. Those who adorn the courtyard of their house with the paintings of their ancestors are not famous, but noble. Everyone has one father, and he is God-God. Everyone gets his or her index with bright or dimmer steps. (De Beneficiis, 28). You can’t be happy, Lucilius, unless you understand that honor is good. Because to live happily, you should not tremble with suspicion. If there’s one way to get us to safety, it is also contemptuous of all external things and is enough to honor. If you leave yourself to virtue and not to virtue, you will be free, you will submit to others. The real good are what the mind gives. Because they are solid and continuous. This is happiness Lucilius… (Letters to Lucilius L25).

Epictetus (AD 50-130) does not believe in immortality and finds it ridiculous to think of an endless life. He’s a tough moralist with an old stoa. The master was having fun by twisting his crippled leg; Don’t break it, he said. When the leg was broken, as if nothing had happened, in cold blood; Didn’t I say break, he contented himself with muttering. This event proves that he was connected to the virtue of Andreia with a great power of thought. (It will take many years for people to learn that instead of enduring the broken leg, it should not be broken.) It will be many years before people can resist to avoid breaking their legs. N.) He did not write a single line. Thoughts, We learn from the notes held by students. In these notes, for example, he says: Wisdom is knowing and behaving according to what we have and without. What we have is our behavior, what we don’t have is our body. Save what’s yours, leave your omaha. The biggest disaster is to regard death as a disaster. If you want your wishes to be fulfilled, just ask what’s in your hands. Everything has two handles. One is convenient to carry it, the other is not. If your brother does evil to you, don’t take him on the same side he did you. Because that handle won’t carry it. Take it with your brother. Because it’s the handle that can carry it. Measure your work: can you handle that load? If you want to be a wrestler, look at your arms. If you want to be a philosopher, with as much food as others, Think about whether you can drink as much as philosophers. You cannot be a philosopher today, a pawnbroker tomorrow, a deputy of Kayser the next day. You need to be one man, one man, good or bad. He is the wise that he doesn’t disparage anyone, praise anyone, complain to anyone, blame nobody. He has eradicated all his desires. We always promote not to lie, and we always lie. Why shouldn’t it lie? The question is not to find the answer, not to lie. The law of nature requires that every nature die. Then I have to die. I’m not eternity. Just as the clock is part of the day, I’m part of the whole. Time comes, I come. It doesn’t matter how you pass. Whether malaria or water … our task is to do what we have, not to listen to the upper side. If I’m going on a sea voyage, Captain, I choose the season. Because I have them. I don’t care if a storm breaks down the road, because I can’t help it. How it is my duty to choose the captain, it is the duty of the captain to deal with the storm, let him think, what to me. Thoughts – Chats.

Emperor Marcus Aurelius  (121-180 AD), like Seneca, believes in the immortality of the soul. On the other hand, like Epictetus, he is a tough moralist. He also proved that the Old Stoa was one of the best practitioners of the principle of self-esteem (Self-Inspection): According to Marcus Aurelius, we live to give fruit as a vineyard stump. If our minds become too weak to dominate our body, we must leave with our will. As Seneca says, we have enough to live on. Marcus Aurelius says: Live in accordance with nature and leave it without worrying, just like a ripe fruit. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground with gratitude to the tree and soil that created it…

Epicureanism was the great and powerful product of ancient Greek indivisibility (Atomism). The major product of the epicureanism is Lukretius, the principal representative of Latin matterism. Materialism thus passed from ancient Greece to ancient Rome. This is such a transition that it will awaken the West after centuries and give broad dimensions to the understanding of materialism. In Rome, a homeland of powerful sovereignty that suits idealism, Lukretius is like a firm seed that resists all the glory of Rome. Despite all the efforts of Cicero, Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, representatives of religious and mysterious philosophy that fit the interests of the Roman sovereigns, this seed could not be prevented from growing. Benjamin Farrington says in his article Epicurus’ Gods and the Roman State (The Modern Quarterly, number 3, c. 1, London, p. 214): “Coryo didn’t like the adorable love the Epicureans felt for him. Tusculenedes, BC In 45, he became angry with the spread of Epicureanism in Rome and aimed to propose another philosophy ”. The main factors behind the spread of Epicurian materialism in Rome were Amafinius and Lukretius, his first translator. (It should be known that Lukretius was undermined in Rome by never mentioning him. According to some reviewers, this silence is an organized and conscious silence. This method is also effective to some extent in our age. as there is no more information, most of his writings are lost). In one of his remaining pieces, Lukretius says (Lukretius, On the Nature of Objects, book 2, lines 59-63): Dök They shed the blood of their citizens to increase their wealth. By murder, they double their wealth. The funerals of their brothers are the subject of gratification for them and the tables of their relatives are a source of hatred. ” We learn all of Lukretius’ thoughts and his contribution to Epicurian materialism from this poem, de Rerum Natura. This poem is divided into six books.

According to Lukretius, the universe is consisted of constantly moving matter, has no beginning and no end, is not created and will not disappear, time and space cannot exist outside the moving matter, they are interrelated, the divisibility of the matter ends in the atom, these atoms are in all the different appearances of the universe, It is wrong to imagine creative principles in explaining nature and it is false, there are countless worlds in the infinite universe, these worlds have always consisted of the same atomic substance, the movement is a feature of substance, and it has not been created by the flick of any natural beings, even the most rigid objects such as iron move with an infinite revolution. . As can be seen, many data of contemporary science are given in this poem.
It is important to note that such materialistic ideas have always brought socio-economic observations and thoughts together, such as: pis In these places where people watch silver and gold veins and where the depths of the soil are explored with iron, a stinky breath spreads from the bottom of Scaptensula. Miners’ faces and skins collapse under this harmful breath. Have you ever seen or heard why they died so quickly and what kind of harsh repression they were subjugated to?, (Ibid, Book 6, lines 808-815). By paying attention to this association, it is better understood why social-economic considerations require materialism and why materialism cannot be independent of social-economic thoughts. Lukretius necessarily linked philosophy to the problems of society.

In addition to these, there is nothing that can control and cannot control nature, there are objective laws in nature and nature is developed according to these laws, these laws are found to be as necessary as they are objective; It has brought astonishing contemporary ideas.

It should not be forgotten that these ideas were put forward before Muhammad and Jesus, they had a century of seniority.

According to Lukretius, spontaneity is the fundamental law in the formation of the universe. He says: arı The fact that the atoms of the universe are placed in their native places is not according to a plan prepared by a head. After a thousand kinds of changes in the universe, after being shaken and displaced throughout eternity, all kinds of movements and mergers reached an order that created the universe by experiment and experiment sonunda (Ibid, book 1, line 1024-1028). This means that this order is obtained by itself, the universe has established itself to experiment. The linguistic thesis that everything has a beginning, a life and an end is expressed in Luretius in all its clarity: ”Movements can neither surely prevail nor protect existence. They cannot completely wash out what has happened, nor can they protect what they have created. The war between existence and extinction therefore continues forever on equal terms. Life is sometimes on top here and sometimes there, and so is death. The child’s life bangs when he sets foot on the shores of the bright sea interferes with the sad moans of death. As these two entities did not interfere with each other, no night came after the day and neither did it return to the night ”(Ibid, book 2, lines 569-580). So the universe is in an infinite being. One of the sources of the French thinker JJ Rousseau’s Social Contract is Lukretius. According to Lukretius, people are bound to each other by a contract in order not to harm each other. The statue is natural, not divine. Since both are thoughtful, Lukretius’s contract is more understandable than Rousseau’s. Because Rousseau’s contract was realized consciously at the end of a long thought and relocation, while Lukretius’s was natural and operational. The epicurean ataraxia expresses in the verses of Lukretius, which have great poetic value: m Don’t you hear what nature wants? Does he have anything other than pain for the body, and carefree for the spirit? Her Everything that can ease the pain and destroy the stone gives him joy. Nature, as nature, does not want anything else. If there are no statues in our house holding torches to illuminate the night, if it doesn’t shine with silver and shimmering with gold, the guitar sounds don’t ring the walls, they’re tall on a stream, under the branches of a tree, among friends, on fresh grass, easily and inexpensively. , especially if the weather smiles at us and sprinkles flowers in the green grass of the season mevsim it is enough for us ”(Ibid, book 2, lines 17-33). Bk. Stoicism, Epicureanism. (Dictionary of Philosophy-Orhan Hançerlioğlu, p.344-347)