What is Scholastic Philosophy?

What is Scholastic Philosophy?

December 23, 2019 0 By Felso

Scholastic philosophy comes from the term scholasticus, derived from the Latin word schola (school), and literally means  school philosophy  .

This meaning is important because scholastic philosophy is based on the idea that truth exists already in medieval thought and that philosophy is taught by teaching in schools. The basis of this philosophy is theology, it is based on it and it tries to support it.

Scholastic philosophy consisted of efforts to maintain the Patristic philosophy and to systematize the philosophical basis of the Christian faith, which was transformed into a doctrine there. Since all philosophy activities have been realized on a scholastic basis since a certain period of the Middle Ages, it is often scholastic philosophy that comes to mind when it is mentioned in the Middle Ages philosophy. It covers a very broad historical period. A second point is that there is both Christian scholastics and Islamic scholastics.

Within the history of philosophy, there are three separate periods of scholasticism:

–  Early Scholastic  (800-1200 years)
–  Scholastic in the Ascension Period  (1200-1300 years)
–  Late Period Scholastic  (1300-1500 years)

In this period, it can be said that scholastic philosophy tends to solve problems posed from a certain angle with different qualities. However, there is a general quality that is understood by the term scholastic philosophy. This general quality should first be mentioned as an Aristotelian property. In patristic philosophy,  Plato  and Platonism were prominent, whereas in scholastic philosophy Aristotelism seems to be the source of inspiration. Aristotle’s  philosophy, more precisely than Plato’s, leads thinkers to wisdom, which means not only to try to know God, but also to the world of facts.

Scholastic as a school philosophy firstly involves both theology teachers to teach systematic theology as well as the teaching of the Seven Free Art (Septem artes liberales) taught in ancient schools. Later on, it was expressed to include all the doctrines and studies of this school.

The common methodological characteristic of scholastic is to apply the philosophy to the field of religion or belief and to make the issues in this field comprehensible. In particular, beliefs and revelations, reason-based objections were tried to be overcome in this way. In this sense, scholastic philosophy does not seek to find something new or to produce ideas, on the contrary, scholastic philosophy has tried to ground the appropriate ones and refute the inappropriate ones. He found the logic for this effort in Aristotle and  Euclides (Euclidean)  geometry.

The concise word and thought of this period is Augustine ‘s thought  :  orum I believe to  understand..

According to this idea, both faith and its expression and language are present.  This idea, which is the basis of realism , is the basic proposition of scholastics. According to this, knowledge is nothing but the manifestation and reflection of the divine truth through various propositions and inferences. Scholastic therefore fights against relativism, subjectivity and skepticism. Scholastic accepts the existence of only one line and a single system of truth attached to it. Nominalism  will then play an important role in resolving scholastics.

Two elements should be underlined in the general moral attitude of scholastic philosophy. Scholastic orders have the moral and moral values. Accordingly, it is important to act in accordance with  good ; because good is both the commandment of God, and God is all good. Scholastic philosophy tried to reconcile faith and knowledge in its beginning and development and on this basis, it focused on finding a systematic and philosophical basis for religious dogmas. However, it has become clear that this project will not be successful in the last period, and the dissociation between knowledge and belief has gained certainty due to internal discussions in the opposite direction.

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook