What Is Scholastic, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
It is the name given to medieval Christian philosophy. Christian philosophy shows two phases separated by certain characters: patristic and scholastic. The patristic philosophy, the philosophy of the church fathers, is the first preparation of the medieval scholasticism. Scholastic covers the entire Middle Ages.
The distinctive feature of the scholastic is its dogmatic nature. To study a certain subject means to read what Aristotle wrote about it. A deeper study is to read what Thomas Aquino wrote on this essay by Aristotle. A scholarly treatise, on the other hand, is to read a third book that repeats the writings of Aristotle and Thomas Aquino. No personal opinions, arguments, doubts or tampering are allowed. Anyone who dares to make the slightest personal outburst is punished by excommunication, which is death or a kind of death alive. Despite this strict discipline, it has produced important scholastic thinkers. Chief among these is Scottus Eriugena (833-880), the founder of scholasticism.
Anselmus (1033-1109), Petrus Abaelardus (1079-1142), Thomas of Aquino (1224-1274), Duns Scotus (1270-1308) etc. they follow him. The scholastic period of Christian philosophy lasted from approximately the 9th to the 16th centuries. The scholastic period, which underestimated and completely suppressed human beings in the divine order, turned into its opposite due to dialectical necessity and prepared its own collapse. Nameism, which emerged as a reaction to hyper-realism, is the first symptom of this decline. When universals were not considered real, Christianity based on universals was shaken to its foundations. Moreover, people who saw themselves as very weak and condescending inevitably turned to mysticism (mysticism) and became introverted. This drove them away from the church. The seeds of the Renaissance were sown in the scholastic period. Plato and Aristotle eventually dragged the medieval Christians into the solid structures of Greek thought.