What is Scotism?July 2, 2021
Scotism or Scotism is the teaching of Duns Scotus, one of the scholastic thinkers of Christian philosophy. Scotsism stands opposite Tomacilik (Tomism) in the scholastic period of the Middle Ages, which lasted from the 9th to the 14th centuries.
The teachings of the Scotsman Duns Scotus, known as the “Slim Doctor”, and the teachings of the Italian Saint Thomas, clash over the fundamental problems of Christianity. Both teachings have their roots in the patristic period of the Middle Ages. Thomas and the Dominicans are Ogustinians (Saint Augustine; 354-430), Scotus and Franciscans are Pelagusists (Pelagus; 360-430).
According to Tomaism, intelligence is superior to will (intellectu est superior voluntas), according to Scotsism, will is superior to intelligence (voluntas est superior intellectu). Tomaism is deterministic, it does not give any freedom even to God, God created the world because he had to create it. Scottishism is libertarian, God is the ultimate freedom and he created the world because he wanted to create it. Tomaism is intellectualist (intellectualism), Scotsism is voluntaristic (volontarism).
These two principles spread from God to man; According to tomacilik, man is not free, he cannot be saved by his own power, he is in need of God’s donation. According to Scotsman, man is free, he can be saved by his own effort, he does not need God’s help. As can be seen, Tomaism humiliates and weakens people, throws them into the lap of blind fatalism; Scotsmanship elevates people, increases their confidence, puts them into moral responsibility (indeterminism).
Furthermore, although both doctrines are conceptualism, Thomas’s conceptualism is close to nominalism. Thomas tends to consider concepts real, Scotus not. Indeed, Scotsmanism prepared Ockham’s nomenclature; Ockham, Durand de Saint Pourçain, Jean Buridanus, Pierre d’Ailly were strengthened by him.
Scots support the immaculee conception of Meryem, which is freed from original sin, while Tomaci defend the opposite view. Scotsmen consider the crucifixion of Jesus to be God’s will, while Tomaists argue it is more than necessary recompense for human sins. Scotsmanism is rationalism, it considers reason the greatest power, it should be believed because it is in accordance with the holy book and church teaching. This clearly means that reason is superior to scripture. It is a very important reaction against dogmatism. Scotsism is the progressive current of the scholastic period in medieval Christian philosophy, and it prepared the collapse of scholasticism.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım