What is Society? What are the Elements and Elements that Make up the Society?July 2, 2021
Society is the name given to all people who live together on the same piece of land in historical development and have a common civilization, cooperate to maintain their lives and realize many basic interests.
In social life, people are born, grow up, die; but society continues to exist. This situation is almost like the survival of a football team.
For example, the Fenerbahçe football team consists of individual players and coaches. Although this group of players and coaches changes regularly, Fenerbahçe has always remained as Fenerbahçe. So society will continue to exist even if people pass away.
Society, like a football team, consists of many elements in an extremely complex and unified structure. The structure formed by these elements as a whole in mutual relationship and interaction gives continuity to social life.
Therefore, society is said to mean something more than the numerical sum of individuals.
Society is the most basic concept of sociology.
WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS THAT FORM THE SOCIETY?
Society is the most basic concept of sociology and consists of relationships between people who share a particular culture and set of social institutions. In other words, what constitutes society is the relations between individuals, the values they share, and behavior patterns rather than individuals. Therefore, society is not a collection of individuals, but a collection of individuals with ties to each other.
That is, we cannot create a social structure just by gathering individuals, just as we cannot get a basketball team when we bring together 5 people who know how to play basketball. Here, every player in the basketball team should have a task, a role. Players are related to each other, each knows the roles of the other players and acts accordingly. The task of the player who established the game is different, the task of the under-pot player is different. There are such relations between people and groups in society, and society consists of these relations that affect people (Özkalp, 2007: 6-8).
ELEMENTS THAT MAKE SOCIETY
The elements that make up the society are all the formations that exist in the social structure and are formed as a result of the interaction of individuals or that ensure the continuation of this interaction. For example, structures that have a unity within themselves such as family, economy, politics, religion, education, and law are the structures that make up the society and maintain the social existence.
In every society, there is a language that enables communication, and an education system that provides knowledge and profession with the rules of etiquette, morality and law in order for this communication to be healthy. All these elements come together to form the society. Sociologists express these elements with a number of concepts in order to better understand the society. These are social institutions, organizations and groups.
SOCIETY – NATION DIFFERENCE
Although the concepts of society and nation are understood to have almost the same meaning in daily use, it should be noted that society does not have the same meaning as nation. A nation is an assumed union that includes official recognition; It is a political category. Society, on the other hand, is a practice established by mutually interdependent social relations.
As a political union, a nation cannot maintain its own existence, nations often maintain their existence through their states. Societies, on the other hand, are not political units, they are governed not by political authorities, but by the society itself, and they can maintain their own existence, namely the stereotyped relations that make up the society (Brown, 1986:6-7).
To give an example, hunter-gatherer tribes that still exist today, albeit in small numbers, are societies, although they are not nations. Every nation is a society, but not every society is a nation. In this case, it is possible to define society as the whole of mutual relations between a community of people living in a certain piece of land, sharing a certain culture and common social institutions.
The concept of institution is used in various meanings in daily life.
For example, organizations such as Kızılay, Turkish Language Institution, TRT (Turkish Radio and Television) established to realize a goal are called institutions.
Here, institution means “establishment”, “facility”. Institution from the sociological point of view; It is the whole consisting of thoughts, behaviors, values, norms, material elements (buildings, goods, etc.) and symbols such as signs, flags, badges, which have continued for generations and gained a permanent quality.
Institutions have their own unique structure and each social institution is an element of culture. There are five institutions that sociology studies. These; family, politics, education, religion, law, economy. These institutions are embodied manifestations of culture.
These institutions form a whole in society with the organization of various roles and relations in order to meet social needs.
Concrete appearances of institutions in social life are called establishments. For example, while education is an institution,