What is Socraticism (Socraticism), Which Schools of Socratic Philosophy?July 2, 2021
The philosophy movement known as Socraticism or Socraticism is a conceptualization that reveals the teaching of the Ancient Greek philosopher Socrates and the general name of those who follow this teaching from various sides.
Socrates’ students first wanted to know what happiness was and where it was found. In the eyes of all, their teacher, Socrates, is a model of a wise and happy person. But what is the characteristic of this happiness that Socrates achieved with the way he lived? This is the first main problem of the Socrates.
Socrates himself did not establish a school. But four schools were founded by his students. These are: Megara School, Elis Eretria School, Kyrene School and Kynik School. Among them, the Megara School and the Elis-Eretria School are small schools. The Kyrene School and the Cynic School, which were more effective in terms of the tendency of Socrates to continue his thoughts, came to the fore.
The Kyrene School is also known as the hedonistic school. The understanding of knowledge of Antisthenes, who did not consider theoretical research important in philosophy, even opposed, was decisive in his ethical view. According to him, concepts, which are our means of thinking and knowing, do not express the objects themselves, but people’s designs about the objects. The concepts we designate for objects are only the words by which we name the objects. We only have words. They tell us nothing about the nature of the things they are called. Therefore, theoretical research on existence is not as important as it seems. Research and knowledge are important to the extent that they serve life (Akarsu, 1982: 40).
Knowledge is meaningful if it makes people virtuous and therefore happy. According to the Kynik School, happiness becomes independent in the face of pleasure. Not pleasure, but virtue is good, and virtue is the primary value. To be virtuous is to keep the soul calm with knowledge. There are various external factors in life that can easily affect us and shake our spirit and inner world. These are the things that usually look good to us. For example, fame, position, influence, wealth, etc. Things that attract people are things that hinder our inner independence. These are not things that can actually be asked for himself. So even though they look good, they are not good. Only virtue is good. According to Anthisthenes, virtue is something that can be learned and once learned, it is never forgotten.
To be virtuous, it is a better way to avoid pleasure, to face difficulties and to work hard. Because working develops people and makes them strong and independent against external factors. According to the cynics, it is appropriate to accept even the evils of others positively. Evil deeds can help a person to know himself. The most correct thing to do in the face of evil is to strengthen oneself and make it better or virtuous (Akarsu, 1982: 43).
Virtue is the most appropriate way to live well and happily and to take right actions. The Kyniks put forward ideas, some of which are extreme, about what should be done for a good and happy life: All kinds of social attachments, whether family or state, prevent a person from living independently. The main value in life is the person. The main thing is world citizenship. It is necessary to be ashamed of what is bad, not what is natural. A slave is free if he is virtuous. In order to be virtuous, it is necessary to be independent of all external conditions. One should not be bound by the traditional rules of society. But what is meant here is not that the wise or virtuous person is completely cut off from society and lives alone. In order for a person to be virtuous or wise, he must become independent of the existing rules and thus show the importance of virtuous life to other people with the wisdom he has reached, and be in a position to influence them to live well and happily (Akarsu, 1982: 46).
The Kyrene School, which was founded by Aristippos and also known as the Hedonist School (Hedonist School), adopted the idea of ”pleasure is good” and argued that it is right to obtain pleasure for a good and happy life. On the basis of this thought is the understanding of knowledge accepted by the Hazci School. According to this understanding of knowledge, there is a gap that can never be closed between the knowing subject and the known object. In other words, the sensation obtained from an object and the object itself are separate things. Therefore, we only have sensations that we have acquired. Of course, there is also the object that creates the sensation, but we cannot know the object itself. In this case, the problem of subjectivity and relativity in knowledge arises. Consequently, in our interaction with objects (with the outside world) there are common names, but no common sensations. It is out of the question to know the objects themselves as they are. So the thing to do is not to pursue theoretical research, but to know how a good and happy life can be and to live accordingly.
The essential thing for man is not knowledge for knowledge, but knowledge for life. Thus, Aristippus argued that pleasure is an end in itself. For him, only pleasure is unconditionally good. Other things are good to the extent that they give pleasure, and