What is Special Relativity Theory?July 2, 2021
Physicist Albert Einstein’s theory proving that the laws of nature are the same in all regularly moving systems… Einstein’s special and general relativity theories brought Gelile and Newtonian physics to their peak and confirmed almost all the assumptions of dialectical materialist philosophy and gave direction to contemporary philosophical thought. Due to the fact that the natural sciences were not sufficiently developed, philosophy, which necessarily turned to metaphysics and tried to advance in a fictional field, has now entered the scientific field. The stage of fictional philosophy is closed, never to be opened again, with the great idealist Hegel. Philosophy cannot be made unless natural sciences are known, and it is not possible to advance in natural sciences without knowing philosophy. That is why dialectical materialist philosophy is a philosophy of science and a science. It is also for this reason that Marx-Engels and his followers are not only philosophers but also physicists, chemists, botanists, etc. If they are, contemporary physicists are just as much philosophers as they are physicists.
Scientific theories develop by limiting each other, not by refuting them. Each new theory brings validity to a wider area than the previous theory. This was also the case in the evolution of physics, and the fact that the universe is composed of many interdependent things was explained step by step. First, Galileo Galilei showed that the mechanical laws are the same in all regularly moving systems. Second, Isaac Newton linked Galileo’s law of falling to the same principle as the laws of motion of the stars and established celestial mechanics. The great physicist of our time, Albert Einstein, extended these proofs, which remained only for mechanical laws, to a universal extent and showed that not only the laws of mechanics, but all the laws of nature are the same for all systems in regular motion with respect to each other. Einstein arrived at this universal theory in two stages. First, with his special theory of relativity, he proved that the laws of nature are the same in all physical phenomena except gravitation, and ten years later, with his general theory of relativity, he showed that all laws of nature are also valid in gravitational phenomena. In an article published in the Times in 1918 and later included in his book How I See the World, pp.206-214, Albert Einstein describes these theories as follows: “My theory of relativity is like a two-story building.
The first layer is the special relativity theory, and the second layer is the general relativity theory. The first theory, on which the second theory was built, pertained to all physical phenomena other than gravity. The second theory is about the law of attraction and its relations with other laws of nature. It has been known since ancient Greece, to show the motion of an object, the motion of another object proportional to the motion of that object is also taken. For example, the motion of a car is determined relative to the ground, and the motion of a planetary star relative to the stationary star. In physics, we call the objects in which the events are proportional to them in terms of space a coordinate system. For example, Galileo’s and Newton’s laws of motion can only be expressed using such a system. However, in order for the mechanical laws to be valid, we cannot choose the motion of this coordinate system as we wish. For example, this motion must not be a cyclical or accelerated motion. That’s why we call a system that can be valid in mechanics, an inertial system. However, according to mechanics, the motion of the inertial system is also not clearly indicated by nature. It would be more appropriate to say: A system of coordinates moving along a straight line with uniform motion is also an inertial system compared to an inertial system. That’s what I meant when I said the theory of special relativity, that is, the general law of nature, which is valid for any coordinate system, is also valid for another system that changes place with a motion equal to that coordinate system, without any change.
This is the first principle that I want to show in special relativity theory. The second principle, which is the core of the special relativity theory, is that the speed of light is constant in vacuum. According to this principle, light has a certain speed in vacuum and this speed does not depend on the motion of the light source. Maxwell and Lorentz, with their outstanding achievements, provided physicists’ confidence in this principle. While these two principles could be supported by experimentation, they seemed to be logically incompatible. Special relativity theory has demonstrated this logical unity by changing the knowledge of physical space and time.
Special relativity theory has shown that saying two events are equal in time only makes sense in relation to another coordinate system. In fact, the shape of the meters we use to measure and the operation of the clocks depend on the motion states proportional to the coordinate system. The old physics, which included the laws of Galileo and Newton, did not conform to this relativistic kinematics. Some general mathematical conditions emerged from this relativistic physics, and only if the two principles I mentioned above were true, the laws of nature could conform to these conditions. In particular, I have established a new law of motion for rapidly displacing material points.