What Is Spirit, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
The tendency to separate the sensory side of the subject from the intellectual side begins in Ancient Greek thought. For example, Homer distinguished between soul-spirit (psykhe) and thought-spirit (thymos).
Although Anaximenes from Miletus confused them, Anaxagoras’s concept of order principle (Nous) and Heraclitus’s principle of reason (Logos) were very different from the concept of psykhe.
Plato distinguished between the good side of the soul (Logistikon) and the irrational side of the soul (Alogistikon). Even the materialist Epicurus was of this opinion. Aristotle also divided the intellect into two as active intellect (Nous pojetikos) and passive intellect (Nous pathetikos). The Stoics and Plotinos conceived of a universe spirit (Psykhe tou kosmou).
Descartes also spoke of a thinking (Cogitatio) apart from vitality and emotion in the Western philosophy that stemmed from these. Leibniz proposed rational tuns (Les Esprits raisonnables) as images of the deity. Ludwig Klages saw it as an inanimate principle opposed to and hostile to spiritual vitality. Jung said that the spirit is the part of the soul that communicates with the subconscious.
The distinction between spirit and spirit, which is sometimes considered very important in classical idealist and metaphysical philosophy, is invalid in dialectical materialist philosophy. In the interaction of the subject and the object, the psychic (in the sense of spiritual and spiritual) side that is specific to the subject and the side that is specific to the object are called the material side.
The psychic side includes all of man’s feelings, thoughts, emotions, character, intellect, will, desires, opinions, intuitions, etc. covers. This far-reaching psychic aspect existed only in the human organism at a certain stage of material formation. (All of them, with the exception of his blood, are also present in less developed animals. N.) Spiritual-spiritual activity that emerges as a result of material evolution is determined by material activity.
“Psychic functioning is the result of the physiological functioning of a certain mass of the brain.” This scientific fact was set forth and clearly demonstrated by the famous scholar Pavlov. In the mutual interaction of the object and the subject, neural connection systems are formed in the human brain. These systems, which allow the reflection of objective reality in the human brain, not only regulate the interaction process between the object and the subject, but also form the thoughts and feelings of the person, and perform behaviors that are compatible with their environment.