What is Subjective and Objective, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Two interdependent conditions of social development. The dependence of subjective and objective factors is one of the most important findings of dialectical and historical materialist philosophy. The relation between the subjective and the objective is a special aspect of the relation between reason and matter, or between consciousness and nature. Before the existence of man, history followed an objective process. Whatever happened in this unmanned universe happened spontaneously. but with the existence of man, human consciousness also participated in this objective process and started a dialectical interaction with him. This is why socio-historical laws, unlike natural-historical laws, have a subjective side besides objectivity. Social laws are, in the last analysis, formed by human activities. However, these laws arose independently of the consciousness and will of the people. Because they are not the result of people’s conscious and premeditated actions.
While people were developing this or that tool, migrating from one land to another, helping each other in one way or another (or fighting N.), they did not consider the social consequences of their actions; What they want to do is to facilitate their daily work, to provide benefits and benefits for themselves. Moreover, new generations have opened their eyes in an environment that was gradually prepared by previous generations over a long history; They have to conform to what they find and live with what they find. That is why the social process around them, like the natural process, is independent of their consciousness and will.
“In the social production of their existence, people establish certain relations that are necessary, independent of their own consciousness and will. These relations of production correspond to a certain stage of their material productive forces. However, people acquire certain thoughts, desires and goals while living in these relationships, which are independent of their consciousness and will. These thoughts, wishes, and goals are increasingly non-subjective and come to be expressed in people’s actions. Thoughts and goals that begin to be expressed in actions become widespread and stronger over time. All social relations, production level and natural conditions that provide historical and social development are ‘objective factors’. People themselves, their desires, goals and organizations are subjective factors. Subjective and objective factors are closely interconnected and are in a dialectical relationship. Subjective factors can only play a role in history when the necessary objective factors are present, while objective factors can only come into being with the operation of subjective factors.
To roughly exemplify, a Napoleon (subjective factor) in history can only occur with the presence of certain historical and social conditions (objective factor), but people (subjective factor) prepare those historical and social conditions (objective factor) consciously or unconsciously; however, people have to make this preparation not according to their liking, but in the direction determined by historical and social objective laws. That is, in the relationship between the objective and the subjective, the objective is the essential and decisive (necessity N.), but the subjective must exist in order for the objective to be able to determine it. Man adds subjective aims to his action, which is subject to objective laws. The laws of nature work ‘spontaneously’, while the laws of society do not work spontaneously. A ‘subjective mechanism’ is necessary to reveal and operate the laws of society. Herein lies the great distinction between the laws of nature and the laws of society. For in human nature consciousness has now participated in the process of objective history, and the objective factor of material production has been formed by the conscious activity of man. That is, in human nature, different from non-human nature, the subjective activity of man is involved in the formation of the objective factor.
In summary, human thought and desires direct all social events of human nature, but these human thoughts and wishes are the product and necessary result of the objective environment that man finds existing at the time of his birth. That is, human thought and desires that direct all social events are not formed spontaneously or according to the pleasures of people, but as a necessary result of existing objective conditions; certain thoughts and desires, which are necessarily created by certain conditions, are necessary in order to carry out a certain revolution or to invent a certain tool.
Let’s sum it up: a revolution or an invention does not happen by itself, human activity (subjective factor) is necessary; but the realization of this human activity does not happen by itself, certain historical and social conditions (objective factor) are required. Here is the close relationship and dependence of the subject and the objective.