What is Substance (Ore) and What Does It Mean?

What is Substance (Ore) and What Does It Mean?

July 2, 2021 Off By Felso

Substance is an unchanging reality that supports changing predicates. According to Descartes, it is something that does not need the existence of anything other than itself in order to exist, and that is only God. According to Spinoza, substance is that which exists by itself and for itself. Science has proven that there is no unchanging object or reality in nature. Everything is constantly changing. In this respect, substance in this sense is nothing but a fiction of ancient philosophy.


Persistent against changing situations; The thing that exists by itself, in itself, and does not need anything else for its existence, is called substance or substance.

For John Locke, the substance is:

“We fail to grasp that attributes continue to exist on their own. We think that there must be something else that necessarily supports them. We assume that this support thing is also found in many objects, and we call this common support Substance . . . ”

Descartes says of substance:

“When I think of substance, I think of something that does not need the existence of anything but itself in order to exist. To put it bluntly, this is only God.”

Dutch thinker Spinoza also defines substance as follows:

“By the word substance I understand that which exists spontaneously and for itself. There is no need for another concept for this concept to occur…”

According to Islamic thinkers, substance exists either because of its own essence or by itself.

The substance that exists by virtue of its own essence and requires nothing for its existence is God. What exists on its own is an independent substance that exists by itself in something else in order to exist, and which does not depend on anything else in order to exist. In this sense, objects other than God are also substances. According to these thinkers, abstract substances have no beginning, and material substances are created.