What is Taoism? TaoismJune 27, 2021
Taoism is a philosophical view that argues that objects in the external world do not actually exist. Taoism or Taoism was founded by Lao-Tse in the 6th century BC. According to this view, everything is Tao, flows from Tao, returns to Tao. So what is Tao?
According to this understanding, Tao is the order in the universe. Tao came into being by itself. The indescribable, objectless, incorporeal, infinite is the mind. Tao means non-existence, since all these features will lead existence to non-existence. Since it reduces existence to non-existence, this view is also seen as a kind of nihilism.
Taoism (also called Daoism or Taoism) is used as the Turkish equivalent of two different words. While Daojiao refers to a religion in Chinese culture, Daojia refers to a philosophy, school of thought. However, both take their source from Laozi’s Tao Te Ching. After Laozi, the founder of Taoism as a school of thought, Zhuangzi is the most important representative of this movement.
Lao Tse is the founder of Taoism.
Taoism is one of the most original teachings of the Chinese religious tradition. The understanding of religion revealed by Taoism is based on the teachings of the Chinese religious tradition, mostly metaphysical. This has been the biggest feature that distinguishes it from Confucianism, which emerged from Chinese civilization.
According to Laozi, the founder of Taoism, the meanings we give to objects and concepts give rise to desires and purposes. Like good and bad, low and high, light and dark. As a result of our detachment from these meanings and our separation from our desires and goals, we arrive at inaction. Once inertia is grasped, the gateway to harmonious life opens.
The effects that detach from real life, such as regrets of the past and worries and plans for the future, also create a kind of imbalance in human life. Harmonious life and natural flow enable people to live by integrating with the moment they are in. This sleep is called following the path. This is what is meant by the word Tao, which means path.
We know very little about the life of Laozi, who put forward these teachings and is known as the founder of Taoism. It’s even debated whether he’s alive or not. Many opinions have been put forward about him and legends have been made up. Sima Qian, one of the famous historians of China, BC. He wrote the biography of Lao-zi as follows in his book Shiji (shi-ci) written in 100:
“Lao-Tzu was born in the village of Chü-jen in Li-hsiangg, in the Kum district of the Chou state. His own name is Erh, his family name is Li, and his pen name is Tan. He is the historian and library keeper of the Chou dynasty empire.”
Accordingly, his real name is Li Tan (Lao-Tan). Lao-Tzu is a nickname given to him; It means “Old Wise”.
In the Chinese oral tradition, His year of birth, known as 604, is not recorded in Shi-chi. This shows that the date was determined later. However, this document is accepted as the best proof that he is alive.
According to mythology, Laozi’s mother was conceived by light, and it is claimed that most of the stories were written after Buddhism for the sake of demanding Buddhist stories. Drawing on the mythology of Laozi’s fatherless birth, some suggest that he may have been a prophet.
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TAOISM
Shamanic Roots (3000 BC-800 BC)
It is possible to see the remnants of shamanic roots, especially in some mystical features and rituals of Taoism. In northern China, near the Yellow River, some tribes had shamans called vu. The failures of the shamans, who tried to find a cure for natural disasters and diseases through their relationship with nature spirits, could be punished with death.
During the Chou dynasty, the duties of shamans included summoning spirits, making rain, healing and divination. The most obvious manifestation of shamanic practices was in the religious and magical aspects of Taoism during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 219 AD).
Classical Period (700 BC-220 BC)
The political and social structures of the Chou empire began to disintegrate by 770 BC. The next five hundred years were a period of political turmoil and civil war, in which feudal lords clashed with each other. During this period, the famous Chinese philosophers Confucius, Mencius, Mo-tzu, Sun-tzu and the great thinkers of Taoism Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu and Lieh-tzu lived.
Lao-tzu, the founder of the philosophy of Taoism, was an educated upper-class librarian who worked in the imperial archives, known as Li Erh, in the southern feudal state of Zhu.
Yin – Yang is the classical symbol of the Taoist movement. This symbol symbolizes all the contradictory forces in nature and their harmonious combination.
The Tao, as understood by both Lao-tzu and Chuan-tzu, cannot be expressed in words, so they used a symbolic expression for it. It has been tried to show that the Tao cannot be understood by any human mental structure by counting its favorable (negative) attributes; it is nameless, formless, formless, unseen, unheard. According to O. Chuang-tzu, Tao is a state of celestial equalization, absolute unity that makes all opposites and contradictions equal.
Eva Wong states that the religion of Taoism is pantheist and pluralistic. The degree of power and enlightenment that gods, spirits and immortals have