What is Teleology (Telescience) and What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Teleology is a philosophy doctrine that sees the universe as a system of relations between ends and means. Teleology, “Does the universe have a purpose?” It is a model explanation of a thought directed to the question. This model is the model that sees the logic of becoming as the goal of becoming, finds some goals in becoming more simply, and thinks that becoming is determined and directed by these goals.
In teleology, it is accepted that not only human actions, but also history and natural events and individual events as well as the whole are determined and managed with goals. That is to say, teleology asserts that all events related to nature and human beings are for a purpose, and that a superior power directs all events in the universe.
Human thought tends to explain the behavior of other things in nature in a similar way; According to this, objects are either purposeful or directed by a mind that transcends nature.
WHAT IS EREKBİLİM?
The doctrine asserting that nature, man and society are determined and governed by goals. The metaphysical meaning of the term, derived from Aristotle, expresses the study of finality in all senses of the word. Contrary to the law of causality that explains why things come into existence, the understanding of teleology, which investigates for what purpose objects occur, is based on the belief that there is a superior power in the universe that can have such a purpose. However, in the face of this subjective metaphysical teleology, there is also an objective and scientific teleology.
Metaphysical teleology is the result of the divine plan, and scientific teleology is the result of material and objective causality. The ethical meaning of teleology tries to determine the ethical goals in human life. Metaphysical teleology regards the universe as the sum of the relations between ends and means. Metaphysicians oppose psychic teleology to scientific causality. According to this understanding, what determines the structure and development of any being is not its cause, but its purpose. This end was set by a spiritual principle, a superior reason, or clearly a god. For example, it is not the wheat germ that makes wheat into wheat, but the divinely determined purpose of becoming wheat. In this field, some metaphysicians go as far as to deny causality altogether. For example, according to L. Wittgenstein “causality is nothing but a prejudice”. (Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, London 1955, p. 108) In the 18th century, the English philosopher Hume claimed that experiment never showed us the necessary connection between events, that is, causality. However, if people could not discover causality in nature and society, they would not be able to take any action, in other words, they could not do science. Science is entirely the product of the understanding of causality.
We would not have been able to produce wheat if we did not know for sure that we would produce wheat when we planted wheat seeds in the soil and provided the necessary conditions. Engels says that “one event gives rise to another event, that is, causality arose through human activity” (Engels, Dialectics of Nature, Editons Sociales, Paris 1955, p. 232). Dialectal materialism has shown that there are objective and material causes behind the teleology in the anatomical structures and behaviors of living organisms. Darwin’s theory has proven this scientifically. Changes in animals and plants are due to changes in environmental conditions. The necessity to adapt to changes in the environment is realized by natural selection and becomes finalized in the structure of living organisms, passing from generation to generation by heredity. Every formation in living organisms is of course purposeful, based on the purpose of sustaining life. But this finality has occurred in the historical process for objective and material reasons. Among the various changes that have taken place in an effort to adapt to the environment, the most appropriate one, which ensures survival, has been preserved by natural selection and determined by heredity, passing from generation to generation and achieving the finality in living organisms. To sum up in one word, metaphysical teleology is the result of the divine plan, scientific teleology is the result of objective and material causes.
The view that events and relationships have a purpose or an end. It is defined as the explanation of cases not only due to motive reasons, but also depending on the final cause. Human thought tends to explain the behavior of other things in nature in a similar way; According to this, objects are either purposeful or directed by a mind that transcends nature. Aristotle made the first comprehensive definition of teleology, arguing that in order for anything to be fully explained, the material, formal and motive cause must be taken into account as well as the final cause.
The metaphysical meaning of the term, derived from Aristotle, expresses the study of finality in all senses of the word. Contrary to the causality law that explains why things come into being, the understanding of teleology, which investigates for what purpose objects occur, is the only one that can have such a purpose in the universe.