What is the Application of Induction Based on Observation, and What Does It Mean?June 27, 2021
It is not easy to reach a common generalization about natural phenomena without carefully observing them one by one. Induction requires strict observation of nature. However, this observation is not an observation that is made as it comes to our minds. On the contrary, it has a functioning that requires certain basic operations with a certain logical operation to be performed sequentially and that rises from the specific to the general.
On this subject, Bacon first says: “Natural and experimental history, which is already very diverse and complex, confuses and confuses the mind if it is not properly determined and arranged. For this reason, we must act in a plan and create the tables and common arrangements of the examples in a row so that we can have an opportunity to affect them instantly” (Bacon, 1999: p.110). The inductive generalization that Bacon wants to achieve with such an understanding of method is to capture the essence of a natural phenomenon, in his words, its form. By using the word form, he shows that he has not yet gotten rid of Aristotelian jargon at this point. However, here, when it comes to form, a completely abstract concept is not thought of, but the essential functioning of the phenomenon in question, a material structure. In other words, the form considered here is a law of nature. Telesius spoke of the active forms of nature, heat and cold. This is why Bacon embarks on the work of discovering the form or law of heat/heat.
The generalization that Bacon wanted to reach with the inductive method was based on capturing the essence and form of a natural phenomenon.
Bacon foresees a four-step process for an induction that will reach a goal in this field: As a first step, all phenomena involving heat (temperature) in nature must be determined, in other words, they must be listed. Bacon roughly describes this stage as the list of things in which the phenomenon is contained. Accordingly, heat is found in the rays of the sun, burning meteorites, flames spewed by volcanoes and unextinct lava, burning solids, naturally hot baths, heated liquids, and the like. Bacon counted 27 prominent cases in this field, and was contented with mentioning other examples as the 28th and did not show any content. However, observations made in this way are open-ended and the general structure of induction is more or less reflected, as Aristotle stated. After this comes the phase of what can be described as a list of things that the phenomenon does not include, as Bacon states: Bacon, “The rays of the moon, stars, comets do not give a feeling of warmth. It has even been observed that the most severe cold is during the full moon” (Bacon, 1999: p.114). The Sun’s rays in the so-called middle region of the sky and the reflections of the Sun’s rays in the polar regions do not contain heat either. Also, there is no warmth in dead bodies. In this way, things that do not contain heat are also tried to be detected.
After that, a series of investigations are carried out under the heading of the list of things in which the phenomenon is found gradually: Because temperature, according to Bacon, is not found at the same temperature in objects. For example, the human body temperature is not the same as the bird’s body temperature. The temperatures of many animals such as fish, snakes and worms are also different from each other. There are also temperature differences between inanimate objects. For example, wood, metal, sulphur, saltpeter and many more show different temperature trends. The fact that the temperature is low or high relative to each other in these leads to the presence or absence of what else? More importantly; If the normal temperature increases or decreases in each object under consideration, what happens to the element that increases or decreases in parallel with these situations? Identifying this element will perhaps reveal what the form of heat, namely its real structure, is. Although Bacon thinks that the form of the phenomenon discussed can be reached almost at this point, he wants to put one last step into effect before announcing the result.
This is the stage of excluding those who are not included in the phenomenon. He suggests that it is good to do this in order to be sure of the accuracy of the result and to prevent any mistakes as much as possible. Since induction will have taken place at the end of this stage, it is necessary to come to a conclusion with a careful examination: While determining the form of temperature on this basis, things or properties that do not contain heat are tried to be excluded so that they do not accidentally interfere with the work. In this way, a list is made again of those that do not include temperature. For example, there is no temperature in the light of some things. For him, light cannot be the form of heat and is therefore excluded. In this case, after the things that do not contain heat are excluded as much as possible, the thing that increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the temperature decreases, and that which does not exist at all in the things where there is no heat, Bacon declares as the form of heat/heat. Accordingly, the form of temperature/heat is motion. S