What is the Contradiction Principle, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
The dialectical principle that asserts that the unity of nature, society, and consciousness develops through contradiction. Also called the law of contradiction.
It was put forward by the German thinker Hegel as the principle of dialectical logic against Aristotle’s formal logic, and it was clearly demonstrated by historical and dialectical materialism, by discovering its natural and social basis.
According to this principle, the source of all life is contradiction. The movement, which is the essence of Being, creates the contradiction in being (contradiction is the source and developer of Being N). All kinds of being develop with the movement brought about by contradiction. So the contradiction; It is the law of development of nature, society and consciousness. A master of scientific philosophy defines contradiction as follows: “The contradiction is that something is both the same and not the same as itself,” that is, it remains the same and is constantly changing. Here development is the opposition between ‘permanence’ and ‘change”. Dialectic, in its truest sense, is the knowledge of the contradiction inherent in objects”. In the dialectical and historical materialism language, ‘conflict’ is used in a sense close to the term contradiction. Contradictions also clash with each other. Contradiction is the developing force that creates all objects and phenomena in the universe, from the smallest piece of matter to the largest universal structure, including man, society and consciousness.
All objects, facts and events develop through contradictions. Contradiction; It is the expression of the fact that all objects, facts and events include their opposites as well as themselves. Every object, fact and event has its ‘anti-self’ counterpart. Hegel says: “Being is opposition itself”. Contradiction requires the contradiction of opposites. Opposites constantly contradict, conflict because they contradict, they are overcome because they conflict, and they grow because they are overcome. So wherever there is life (i.e. motion), there must be a contradiction. Death is an inertia, immaturity, that is, non-contradiction. The first thinker to see this fact with a superior intuition was Heraclitus, the great master of ancient Greek thought. Heraclitus expressed the contradiction in a special sense with the phrase quarrel (Polemos). According to Heraclitus, everything is fighting everything, and therefore “many things and everything from one thing” was formed.
In ancient Greek thought, the Eleans and early skeptics, such as Zeno and Pyrrhon, were convinced that these contradictions could not be resolved and should be ignored. By ignoring contradictions, it was necessary to give up investigating the real structures of objects, so objects could not be known and comprehended. The seeds of agnosticism were sown by the despair of not being able to resolve the contradictions. In this case, there is no other way out than to take refuge in supernatural forces. This is the fallacy that opens the wide-ranging doors to idealism.
Centuries later, the German thinker Hegel explained this masterful insight of Heraclitus in the idealist field, and historical and dialectical materialism put it on its real material basis. “Differential and integral in mathematics, motion and counter motion (action-reaction N.) in mechanics, plus electricity and negative electricity in physics, the union and separation of atoms in chemistry prove the universality of contradiction.” Full knowledge of contradiction requires knowledge of the following details: Every object, phenomenon and event in the universe carries many contradictions, that is, many contradictions. These contradictions are ‘internal contradictions’. It is these contradictions that make an object, phenomenon and event itself, in other words, what it is. But within them there is a strong contradiction that pulls the contradiction in its direction, this is called the ‘main contradiction’. As with any contradiction, one of the two ends of this main contradiction is conservative and the other progressive. The developer end is the ‘master end’. Because this main end of the main contradiction will determine the future of being. The conservative end tries to keep the contradiction, and therefore the being, the same with itself. If the mother flies, she takes it from herself and develops it.
Despite the reversals in every object, fact and event, there is always a forward development in the final analysis, this development is always from the lower to the higher, from the lower to the higher, from the backward to the advanced, and from the simple to the complex. However, for this development not only internal contradictions are sufficient, but also the help of ‘external contradictions’ is required. For example, it is its chemical and biological internal contradictions that develop and hatch the egg, but an external contradiction, such as heat, is also necessary for chickling to occur. An egg cannot hatch without heat, but heat cannot hatch a stone. So it is internal contradictions that are fundamental between internal and external contradictions, because the chick is the product of the egg, not the heat….
Contradiction is the fundamental law of dialectical knowledge. To know the dialectic means to know the contradiction, which is the source of movement and development. The metaphysical worldview, which has dominated human knowledge for centuries, differs from the dialectical worldview by denying the existence of contradiction. This fundamental mistake of metaphysics is that it has sought the quality of ‘contradiction’ that formal logic seeks in abstract concepts in nature, society, and in the development process of human consciousness, which is reflected from these. Meta