What is the Difference Between Theology and the Philosophy of Religion?

What is the Difference Between Theology and the Philosophy of Religion?

June 29, 2021 Off By Felso

Philosophy, in essence, is an act of thought that has existed with religious criticism.

Then he turned to all “humanity”. In this context, although philosophy and theology are very different from each other, they have drawn the image of “one” in minds.

Here we will list these differences for you:

–  Theology is based on faith; does not go beyond the limits of faith. Therefore, each religion has its own theology.

In other words, Theology deals with a certain religion and its subjects. Every religion bases its explanations on the holy books it believes in, the statements of its prophets and the comments of the religious elders. In this framework, theology accepts and tries to spread the religious teaching it has based on dogmatic and authority. Therefore, they approach their subjects in a biased way. There is no room for criticism because it is dogmatic. The purpose of theology is to strengthen the beliefs of believers and to regulate human life by its rules.

– Theology (theology/theology) is a branch of knowledge that deals with the existence of God, his qualities and the place of man before God. Theology is based directly on faith; does not go beyond the limits of faith. Therefore, each religion has its own theology. Accordingly, every religion bases its explanations on the holy books it believes in, what its prophets reported, and the interpretations of religious scholars. Theology accepts and tries to spread the religious doctrine shaped in this framework by being dogmatic and adhering to authority. Besides, religion aims to regulate human life with its rules.

– Theology is the branch of knowledge that studies and defends the rule system of any religion. It deals with a particular religion. For this reason, Islamic theology takes names such as Christian theology. Theology and philosophy of religion are the same. Both are concerned with religion and God. However, the theology and the philosophy of religion have different approaches to this issue. Philosophy of religion deals with religions in general. He approaches the phenomenon of belief in general, not the rules of a particular religion, in a systematic and critical way. However, theology accepts the system of rules of the religion it deals with as correct and tries to justify it with reason. For this reason, he is the defender of the religion he deals with.

– Philosophy of religion tries to explain and question the phenomenon of religion in general, the concepts of religion, its basic claims, its place in human life, based on reason, not a specific religion. Philosophy of religion is based on free thinking and questioning. So there is no dependence on authority. Philosophy of religion does not aim to spread religion. Nor does it try to make people more faithful or more unbelieving. Therefore, it is at an equal distance from all religions. So it is neutral. In addition, philosophy of religion does not aim to set rules that will regulate human life.

– Philosophy of religion generally aims to explain, question and criticize the concepts, meaning, basic claims and place of religion in human life, within the limits of reason. Philosophy of religion, while questioning religious beliefs, does not try to make people more believers or more unbelievers. In addition, since he does not have any concerns about spreading any religion, he stays at an equal distance from all religions. Thus, it maintains its impartiality. Therefore, philosophy of religion does not aim to set rules that will regulate human life.

– Philosophy of religion sees the phenomenon of religion as an independent and special area of ​​existence and tries to show the role it plays in human life. The basic concepts and claims of religion; It is directed to make critical, systematic and rational explanations. Analyzes the basic concepts of religion and reveals the relations between them. Philosophy’s approach to religion is what it is to art, morality, or politics.

As can be seen, philosophy of religion, like theology, deals with the subject of God, the universe and man. However, their approaches to this issue differ from each other.

We can also consider this discrete comparison on a singular basis as follows:
Theology is based on faith, and the philosophy of religion is based on reason.
Each religion has its own theology; but the philosophy of religion deals directly with the concept of “religion” regardless of religion.
Theology bases all its explanations on scriptures and prophets. Philosophy of religion, on the other hand, makes all its explanations based on reason.
Theology accepts religious teaching as dogmatic and authoritative; does not question, does not argue. Philosophy of religion, on the other hand, systematically and consistently questions and criticizes religion on the basis of rationality, far from dogmatism.
Theology approaches the phenomenon of religion in one direction. For example, a Muslim tries to explain and justify religion only on the basis of Islam. But the philosophy of religion, by considering religion in all its aspects, criticizes theism, atheism and agnosticism.
Theology aims to strengthen people’s beliefs and direct human life with religious rules. Philosophy of religion has no such concerns. Philosophy of religion does not set rules and shy away from definitive conclusions. Because definitive results mean the end of philosophy. In philosophy, there is no ending. In this context, the philosophy of religion does not try to make people more believers or non-believers while questioning religion.

Prepared by: Sociologist Ö