What is the Field of Philosophy?December 21, 2019
In addition to trying to grasp the universe as a whole, there are other problems that have always been of interest to philosophers: What is the origin of the universe? What is the structure and form of the universe? Who am I? What is the original and meaning of man? What is the destiny of the universe? What is human destiny?
As can be seen, in philosophy; Since the beginning, besides the problem of knowing the universe , there is also the problem of knowing and knowing ourselves . In addition to the metaphysical discipline of philosophy , there is also a “moral etik (ethical) discipline. Metaphysics wants to know what exists, what is truth, and search for their source. Morality does not search for what is happening, but for good and evil. It can be said that: Besides the theoretical philosophy that wants to know the source and the inner face of the universe, there is also a practical philosophy, that is, morality, which shows the way in which man will walk. Practical philosophy explores the meaning of life and what goals we must set ourselves.
Apart from the concept of “good vard, there is a“ beautiful ”concept that is close to this concept. What is good and evil as well as what is beautiful and ugly is questioned. In this way, “aesthetics konu, which deals with“ beauty kendis, becomes an independent discipline by separating from moral discipline.
In addition to these two main disciplines of philosophy – metaphysics and morality – there is a third discipline: “logic.. Logic is the science of knowledge that is correct. Every knowledge, including metaphysics and morals, wants to attain truth, and every science is constantly on the lookout for the right information. Here, the question n What is truth, how do we get it? Çıkar arises. Here again, we ask ourselves the question müdür Is it possible for us to reach the truth?..
Thinking, called philosophy, is similar to a fabric made up of these main problems. What kind of connection and relationship is there between the three main problems constituting the philosophy? Only a historical observation can explain this question. In other words, it is possible to explain the relationship between these three main disciplines of philosophy by following the course of thought history.
Philosophy differs from independent sciences in particular at one point; it is possible to carry out studies within the discipline of this science regardless of the historical development of this science. For example, the person who deals with mathematics does not need to know the history of mathematics. Of course, we do not want to say that the history of independent sciences is unnecessary. It is of course useful to investigate and know the historical development of independent sciences. However, it is not only useful to know this historical development in philosophy, it is also imperative. Because those who want to deepen in philosophy must deal with the history of philosophy. Without the history of philosophy, there is no philosophy.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), Lecture Notes of Ernst von Aster.