What is the Importance of Grounding and Grounding in Philosophy?June 26, 2021
The way used to show the correctness of an idea, judgment or proposition and to reveal the grounds and justifications for this correctness is called grounding.
A person who encounters many problems in his life, when he doubts the correctness of the answers, follows some ways: “Is the weather closed?” The person who doubts the answer given to the question turns outward himself and confirms or does not accept the correctness of this answer by observing the outside. The accuracy of the answers given to some questions requires explanations put forward as a result of some scientific researches. “Why do objects thrown into the air fall to the ground?” The correctness of the answers given to the question is of this type.
So how did we get all the information we have? A philosopher explains his views, based on reason and step by step, in his answer to this question, clarifies the concepts and words he uses, and ensures consistency between propositions. A philosopher explains why he thinks so, not based on his experiments and observations, but with mental inferences. Justifies its views; can place their explanations in a logical whole. This is also called grounding. Grounding is the task of finding a basis and justification for the views and claims put forward.
Although the answers to the above-mentioned questions require different methods or techniques, they also ensure the validity of the answer as they are based on evidential criteria. The search for an answer to a question may not meet these criteria, and their validity may require other ways and methods. “Who am I?”, “Do I know myself?”, “Can there be morals that apply to everyone?”, “What should be the purpose of life?”, “What is love?”, “What is the best form of government?”, “Everything Does it necessarily have to have a reason?” The answers given to questions about the main problems of life, such as these, are of this type, and whether they are correct or not cannot be explained by scientific methods. Attempts at meaningful analysis for such questions can be expected from philosophy, and the method it follows is called grounding.
FOUNDATION IN PHILOSOPHY
When it comes to grounding in philosophy, first of all, reasoning, proving or refuting the problem is understood, not a random explanation. Grounding in philosophy is done by showing the grounds of the thought or view or by putting forward the reasons. Information or opinions about the problem handled through grounding are examined, and then they are made consistent with the help of the principles of reason and logic. In short, the problem is described in detail and the ideas are put forward. The correctness of the answer that the philosopher has reached by grounding the problem is decided by looking at the structural consistency of the grounding he has made. The validity of the philosopher’s justification depends, at least, on this.
For example, Heraclitus claimed that accurate information is impossible. In order for this claim to take place in the history of philosophy, it must be grounded like any claim or opinion. Heraclitus, as a philosopher, made this justification as follows: Change dominates the universe. This is observable and verifiable. Changing things cannot have immutable knowledge. Therefore, accurate information is impossible. Again, Zenon, a philosopher like Heraclitus, also grounded the impossibility of motion as follows: Let’s think of a person who wants to go from point A to point B. This person has to go half the way first. In order to go half of the way, he has to go a quarter of the way, and in this he has to go half of the half of the way. That is, this person will never reach point B because he has to go a continuous distance. Thus, movement is impossible. Because these halves will never end. If the halves run out, there isn’t any distance there anyway. Because everything has a half.
Philosophers logically justify their critical views on problems with justification in philosophy. The philosopher grounds the problem and describes it. In this respect, the philosopher tries to reveal the reasons for his views on the problem with justification in philosophy.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook