What is the Limit?July 2, 2021
The point or line where anything ends. In the last word, it is synonymous. According to some thinkers, the end expresses the end in terms of time, and the limit expresses the end in terms of space. There is no limit and no end in the universe, the universe is unlimited and infinite. Everything in the universe changes and transforms infinitely and endlessly.
Limit actually means measure, everything in the universe has a limit. For example, the ‘water’ quality limits of one oxygen and two hydrogens are 1-99 degrees Celsius, one oxygen and two hydrogen autos take the character of steam at 100 degrees Celsius and ice at 0 degrees Celsius. All objects and phenomena have certain qualities that correspond to certain quantities. This means that certain qualities are limited to certain quantities. For example, a nitrogen atom carries 7 electrons and an oxygen atom carries 8 electrons. So the quantitative limit for nitrogen is 7 electrons and the quantitative limit for oxygen is 8 electrons. For example, if we exceed this limit of nitrogen and add one more electron to it, the nitrogen changes quality and becomes oxygen. Similarly, by crossing a certain limit, he becomes dead alive, a medical student becomes a doctor, and a deputy candidate becomes a deputy. However, in all these objects and events, material life continues without limits. That is to say, limitation and limitlessness are not concepts that are opposite and annihilate each other, but concepts that are dependent and include each other.
The limit of knowledge is the unscientific assumption made up by metaphysics and idealism. Knowledge has no limits, because its subject has no limits. Just as the numbers cannot be counted to infinity, so the knowledge of nature is inexhaustible. As Engels said, the complete knowledge of the universe would be the end of eternity. The universe is infinite, so its knowledge is also infinite. Science will always have an unlimited field of research, and more and more comprehensive laws and deeper commitments will emerge. This process will not be limited by any limits. Knowledge is the process of approaching the object without limits. However, knowledge has always been and always will be limited historically. What limits knowledge historically is its possibilities, the conditions in which it occurs. For example, in an age where the elevator is not known, the speed of the elevator cannot be known, of course. Knowledge is a process that brings with it the solution of every new problem. Knowledge of the solution will, of course, be limited to the occurrence of the problem. Each new formation will create new problems and bring new information.
The German thinker Immanuel Kant, who draws a limit to knowledge and asserts that we do not know and will never know beyond this limit. According to Kant, we can only know events (phenomena), we can never know ‘thing-in-itself’ or noumena, these are border-concepts, our knowledge stops at this limit and cannot go beyond.
This unscientific thesis was refuted by another German idealist, Hegel: in order to become conscious of the limit, we must know what lies beyond it. Knowing the end of a line also means knowing the space beyond that line (no spaces N.). Not knowing something at all is not being conscious of it. Knowing that we are ignorant about a subject shows that we have more or less knowledge about it. But this information is insufficient, we have become aware of this inadequacy, so we say “we don’t know about this subject”. Not knowing something is not knowing that it is not known. This means that knowledge cannot have an absolute limit, because if there were, we would not know this limit either. If we know this limit, it means that we have gone beyond the border, or this border is not real and does not exist. A person with insufficient education or a weak intellect (N.) cannot understand how a plane that weighs tons can fly in the sky, but this does not prove the unknowability of the plane. Likewise, the fact that we do not know the universe does not prove the unknowability of the universe. In this reasoning, Hegel also draws attention to the distinction between the ‘unknown’ and the ‘unknowable’: Of course, I cannot know if there is an animal species living at the bottom of the ocean, but this is not because that fish species is unknowable.
The Dutch thinker Spinoza also says that to define is to limit, when we say that a flower is red, we limit it against all other colors; eg green, yellow, blue etc. We say that it is not, so to limit is to negate. To say what something is (affirmation) is to say what it is not (negation) and to limit it to what it is not. When we say that a person is good, we also say that he is not bad, and we keep him outside the limit of evil, that is, we limit him. So to define, that is to say, to define is to set a limit. Every being is determined by a limitation. There is a border that separates one pomegranate seed from other grains. If there was no limit, it would be impossible to pass from existence to existence, in other words, to develop and therefore to be unlimited. As can be seen clearly, infinity also requires the limit.