What is the Metaphysical Method?July 2, 2021
The metaphysical method is the technique of metaphysical thinking and practice. Metaphysical thinking, as the opposite of dialectical thinking, includes natural, conscious and social objects and phenomena; It is to think as immobile, independent, without contradiction, unchanging and undeveloping. As a matter of fact, such objects and phenomena do not exist in nature, consciousness or society, and they can only be assumed in the ‘unnatural’, that is, in metaphysics.
Everything in the universe is in constant motion, contradiction, change, development and is dependent on each other. Thinking and examining nature, man and society within these natural operating laws and in accordance with their objective realities is the thinking and application technique of the ‘dialectical method’, which is the exact opposite of the ‘metaphysical method’.
The metaphysical method regards objects as “as if they were made in their final and final form, never to change again” and defines concepts as precise, always and everywhere valid. However, like objects, concepts are constantly contradicting, changing and developing. Even the concept of ‘metaphysics’ has undergone various changes in the historical process and has been used in various meanings. Whether it is an object, concept or event, as it is clearly seen; To treat any phenomenon as ‘infinitely valid’ deceives the processes of thinking, examining, and applying. Hence all the errors of the metaphysical method.
Metaphysical thought started with the separation of human thought from nature and has continued until today. However, this adventure of human thought was necessary in the historical process. Man, who started to think about nature, was necessarily deprived of the opportunity at a certain stage to control his thinking with the data of nature and to verify whether they were valid in practice, since the sciences did not progress at the same pace. For this reason, thought broke away from ‘physics’ and necessarily took the path of ‘metaphysical’ dreams.
This obligatory intellectual adventure of man, who has to develop his thinking by keeping it constantly dependent on the physical world, has turned into a unique scientific method in the 17th and 18th centuries with the birth of modern science. Because during the development of the sciences, “natural sciences, especially, had to collect facts, describe and classify various objects and events,” and “to describe an object, it was necessary to distinguish it from a collection of other objects. Hence the habit of treating the cases separately from each other, outside of their universal commitment. This made it impossible to develop objects, to see their sources, and to understand how they came into being through transformation from other objects different from themselves. This is how the ‘metaphysical method’, which deals with objects separately from each other and outside their development, was born and became a tradition in the field of scientific thought for a long time, dominating people’s consciousness. The metaphysical method worked more or less in everyday life and in the lower levels of science, but it was not enough to analyze the complex processes of development.
Moreover, in some social conditions, it is also convenient and inclined to protect the political interests of some social forces. For example, those who want the order not to change immediately embrace metaphysics and activate all the institutions of metaphysics; because, according to metaphysics, the existing order is infinitely valid, it has always been like this and will always remain like that. ‘Metaphysics’, which, by its very nature, necessarily lacks knowledge of the general laws of formation; It cannot illuminate the past, understand the present, and foresee the future. It is only possible to analyze the ‘existing’ in its past evolution, to understand why it is the way it is today, and to predict its future according to the active drivers of development, only by the ‘dialectic method’. The tool used by the metaphysical method in research; It is ‘formal logic (identity, non-contradiction, impossibility of the third case)’. This logic and metaphysics are closely interconnected. That is why today, in the face of the great achievements of dialectics, all metaphysical and idealistic teachings have turned to logicism. Because logic (formal logic N.) “classifies everything strictly (with definite limits, N.), obliges us to see it as identical with itself, then leaves us in a choice-either yes or no-say-and-between two opposite situations. It is a means, a method of thinking, that does not allow a third possibility.
If we choose any one among the numerous examples of natural, conscious and social processes, we will see that this logic necessarily leads to the following result: Democracy is democracy (identity), dictatorship that is anti-democratic cannot be dictatorship (contradiction). does not exist (the impossibility of the third case). However, like bourgeois democracies, popular democracies are not democracies in the strict sense. These democracies include the dictatorship, which is opposed, and thus both democracy and dictatorship are in the third case. Socialist democracies are democracy for the working class, just as bourgeois democracies are democracy for the bourgeois class and dictatorship for other classes.