What is the Scientific Method?June 28, 2021
The method of science is called the scientific method. The scientific method consists of all the processes that scientists do in order to produce scientific knowledge about the phenomena that fall under the subject of science and to explain these phenomena. These processes can be divided into physical and intellectual processes.
physical transactions; observation, experiment and measurement. With these processes, physical interaction occurs between scientists and the object strings whose information they want to access. The scientist is affected by the object-system in observation, and the experiment affects the object-system. Intellectual operations are deductive and inductive inference operations on the one hand, and scientific hypothesizing operations by adding creative imagination to inference operations, on the other hand.
Science is the accumulation of knowledge that has been proven and tried through experiments and is reasonable. Science is reaching the facts that establish the order of the universe; It is a set of hypotheses, theories, and laws related to scientific problems. Science; It encompasses all of the objective observation, experiment, research, and investigation to develop hypotheses and theories.
Stages of the scientific method
Science is basically an information activity and each type of knowledge is shaped on a certain method. Types of knowledge fed by one or more of the methods such as experiment, observation, doubt and logic; differ from each other in the way they use these methods. The main difference that distinguishes the scientific method from the others is that it operates in a regular and controlled manner on the subject in question.
Related topics: What is deduction?, What is induction?
The scientist; He makes use of scientific methods while examining the subject he deals with, and clearly reveals how he did each step of his research and how he reached his explanations.
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
feeling the problem
Looking at current theory and research
Making preliminary observations
Limiting the problem, establishing research objectives as questions or hypotheses
Determination of the universe and sample (identification of objects, documents, samples or persons forming the subject)
Developing data collection tools and collecting data from the sample by means of observation, interview, experiment or information form (data collection tools)
Describing the data and analyzing whether the hypotheses are confirmed
Linking these findings with existing theories or developing new theories
Findings and conclusions
Development of recommendations
Moving to a higher research by taking into account the results and changing the decaying hypotheses
Thanks to the method it has developed, science tries to explain the reason for the events as a result of the scientific laws it has put forward and the explanations it has made based on it. Science activity obtains reliable information from this aspect. This situation has resulted in the testing of the method of science on other fields and has gradually increased the tendency towards science. Therefore, science has progressed rapidly and research has expanded the field of study.
Stages of scientific research
Identifying the problem
The problem is a question that we do not know the answer to. If we cannot explain how and why an event happened with our current knowledge, it is a problem for us. The problem must be well thought through. Here, the scientist does all these studies to find an answer to the problem. Example problem: How does cancer disease occur?
The scientist makes observations about the problem. While doing this, it uses two different observation methods, qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative observation is observation made with sense organs. In such observations, the margin of error is high and the determination made differs from person to person. Subjectivity prevails. Exemplary qualitative observation: The tumor mass is felt by touch. Quantitative observations are observations that are more objective and based on measuring instruments. In such observations, the margin of error is lower and more preferred by scientists. Example quantitative observation: The diameter of the tumor mass is 3 cm. Here is a measurement.
Data are truths, facts about the problem. As a result of observations, data is collected. Scientific facts proven by experiments are called facts.
Establishment of the hypothesis or hypotheses
The temporary solution offered to the problem is called a hypothesis. A good hypothesis should have the following characteristics: It should fit all the data collected. It should suggest a suitable solution to the problem. It should be open to experiments and observations. Making predictions Predictions made based on a hypothesis or hypotheses. It is carried out by deductive and inductive methods. In the deductive method, a result is obtained by using a prior knowledge. In other words, it is to arrive at a less comprehensive specific knowledge from a general knowledge.
Conducting controlled experiments
We can understand whether the predictions made are valid or not through controlled experiments. There are two groups in controlled experiments. One is called the control group and the other is called the experimental group. The same experiment is performed in both groups. The researched factor is kept different between the groups and the conclusion is reached. Experiment results confirm the predictions